Do you intend to do further research on your topic once you've gotten a job coming out of grad school? Do you intend to seek grants to help you further develop your project? Do you intend to collaborate with another scholar before you offer your work to a broader audience?
What to wear to your thesis defense When defending your thesis, you want to prove to your committee and advisor that you are capable of producing more broad-ranging, in-depth pieces of scholarly writing. With this in mind, you should look the part.
You will want to wear professional attire that is comfortable - the last thing you want is to distract your audience from the masterpiece that is your thesis by tugging at clothing while you are presenting your defense or fielding questions.
Nor do you want to disrupt your own ability to concentrate by squeezing into those cute shoes. Showtime No matter how nervous you are, be sure to focus and to listen with care to the questions posed to you. Take a moment to pause before you give your answer if you need to - they are not looking for quick responses, but they are looking for solid ones. You should expect to be asked to address the more controversial aspects of your thesis.
Keep in mind that you don't have to defend everything about your thesis. If you don't have an answer to a question, don't fake it or make any promises - reply that the question is interesting and that you will consider it in the future. Defending your thesis requires you to be political to a certain extent. If you are having trouble with managing your fears while defending your thesis, you may find it helpful to use visual aids during your presentation. They can help you stay focused and confident, as well as help you pace yourself.
Visual aids, if you use them, should clearly state the research problem, objectives, approaches, and the contributions of your thesis work. You may also decide to videotape or audiotape your defense, as it can help you keep track of the reactions, suggestions, and criticisms that you receive.
Often your thesis committee members will offer tips for revision. These could be crucial as you revise your work for later publication or development. But you will be so focused on what you need to say next during your thesis defense that you will very likely not remember much of what the professors said after the fact. If you document the session, you will later be able to retrieve and follow the expert advice your thesis committee offered during your defense.
One of the most crucial things to remember when defending your thesis is to maintain a level of passion about your research. In this case, "defend" does not imply that a student will have to argue aggressively about his or her work. Rather, the thesis defense is designed so that faculty members can ask questions and make sure that students actually understand their field and focus area. Defending a thesis largely serves as a formality because the paper will already have been evaluated.
During a defense, a student will be asked questions by members of the thesis committee. Questions are usually open-ended and require that the student think critically about his or her work. A defense might take only 20 minutes, or it might take an hour or more depending on the goal of the committee and the requirements of the program.
Schools want graduate candidates to be as prepared as possible when attending a defense, which means that neither the date nor faculty committee will be a surprise to the student. It's important to keep in mind that if you go into a defense with the right attitude and preparation, failing is nearly impossible. The committee wants to see how well you know your subject and your research.
A bachelor's thesis is often 40—60 pages long, a diploma thesis and a master's thesis usually 60— The required submission for a doctorate is called a Dissertation or Doktorarbeit. The submission for a Habilitation , which is an academic qualification, not an academic degree, is called Habilitationsschrift, not Habilitationsarbeit. PhD by publication is becoming increasingly common in many fields of study[ citation needed ]. A doctoral degree is often earned with multiple levels of a Latin honors remark for the thesis ranging from summa cum laude best to rite duly.
A thesis can also be rejected with a Latin remark non-rite, non-sufficit or worst as sub omni canone. Bachelor's and master's theses receive numerical grades from 1. India[ edit ] In India the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva in short. Involved in the viva are two examiners, one guide student guide and the candidate. One examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university.
Engineering and Designing qualifications such as BTech, B. Des, MTech, M. Des also involves submission of dissertation. In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis. Indonesia[ edit ] In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses. The undergraduate thesis is called skripsi, while the doctoral dissertation is called disertasi.
In general, those three terms are usually called as tugas akhir final assignment , which is mandatory for the completion of a degree.
Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities. In some universities, students are required to write a proposal skripsi or proposal tesis thesis proposal before they could write their final assignment.
If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment. Iran[ edit ] In Iran, usually students are required to present a thesis in their master's degree and a dissertation in their Doctorate degree, both of which requiring the students to defend their research before a committee and gaining their approval. Most of the norms and rules of writing a thesis or a dissertation are influenced by the French higher education system.
Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3—4 ECTS credits to more than Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Malaysia[ edit ] Malaysian universities often follow the British model for dissertations and degrees. However, a few universities follow the United States model for theses and dissertations. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses.
Pakistan[ edit ] In Pakistan, at undergraduate level the thesis is usually called final year project, as it is completed in the senior year of the degree, the name project usually implies that the work carried out is less extensive than a thesis and bears lesser credit hours too. The undergraduate level project is presented through an elaborate written report and a presentation to the advisor, a board of faculty members and students.
At graduate level however, i. A written report and a public thesis defense is mandatory, in the presence of a board of senior researchers, consisting of members from an outside organization or a university. A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement. The defense of the research work is done publicly. However, in Philippine English , the term doctorate is typically replaced with doctoral as in the case of "doctoral dissertation" , though in official documentation the former is still used.
The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a research project to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis. This project is mostly given as a prerequisite writing course to the actual thesis and is accomplished in the term period before; supervision is provided by one professor assigned to a class. This project is later to be presented in front of an academic panel, often the entire faculty of an academic department, with their recommendations contributing to the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the initial topic.
In addition, the presentation of the research project will help the candidate choose their primary thesis adviser. An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar lecture or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations: proposal and thesis presentations though this varies across universities , whereas a master thesis or doctorate dissertation is accomplished in the last term alone and is defended once.
In most universities, a thesis is required for the bestowment of a degree to a candidate alongside a number of units earned throughout their academic period of stay, though for practice and skills-based degrees a practicum and a written report can be achieved instead.
The examination board often consists of 3 to 5 examiners, often professors in a university with a Masters or PhD degree depending on the university's examination rules. Required word length, complexity, and contribution to scholarship varies widely across universities in the country.
The academic dissertation for a PhD is called a dysertacja or praca doktorska. The submission for the Habilitation is called praca habilitacyjna" or dysertacja habilitacyjna". Thus the term dysertacja is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree. Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public.
The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate. For the PhD, a thesis tese is presented for defense in a public exam. The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars including the advisor or other experts with a PhD degree generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but it may depend on the University. To complete a master's degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly.
The length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study[ citation needed ] Slovenia[ edit ] At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies.
The thesis used to be 40—60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20—30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. To complete Master's studies, a candidate must write magistrsko delo Master's thesis that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis.
The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija doctoral dissertation. In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master's thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate. Sweden[ edit ] Cover page of a licentiate dissertation in Sweden In Sweden, there are different types of theses. The undergraduate theses are called uppsats, sometimes examensarbete, especially at technical programmes. After that there are two types of post graduate theses, licentiate thesis and PhD dissertation.
A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete. The thesis can be written as a monograph or as a compilation thesis , where the introductory chapters are called kappa, literally coat. A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors.
In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions.Once all the paperwork is in order, copies of the thesis may be made available in one or more university libraries. We have prepared for you key tips and recommendations that will help you can achieve the cherished goal. The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme , offered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend. Argentina[ edit ] In the Other American doctathe thesis dissertation can be released to as different sides inside the academic program that the literature is seeking to pass into a defended Argentine Universityin all the graduations the students must develop defended contribution in the fact fields by means of several paper writing and essays that comprehend the body of the apple. In each person, what exactly is expected differs between groups and defense faculties. You should stand to be asked to thesis the Essay on my eating habits controversial aspects of your thesis. Donkeys for PhD and Habilitation degrees are graduation.
The undergraduate theses are called uppsats, sometimes examensarbete, especially at technical programmes. Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution. At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva. These projects are called "senior projects" or "senior theses"; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge. From on, these courses were replaced by academic Master's programmes that include specific training on epistemology, and scientific methodology.
A thesis can also be rejected with a Latin remark non-rite, non-sufficit or worst as sub omni canone. Bows After you have presented your defense, you will either be told that you have passed, that your thesis needs minor revisions, that your thesis needs to be resubmitted, or that it has not been approved. But you will be so focused on what you need to say next during your thesis defense that you will very likely not remember much of what the professors said after the fact. What is the role of a research advisor? A grade may be awarded, though in many countries PhDs are not graded at all, and in others, only one of the theoretically possible grades the highest is ever used in practice.
Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses. Here are some tips to quell the anxiety and make the process run smoothly. However, in Philippine English , the term doctorate is typically replaced with doctoral as in the case of "doctoral dissertation" , though in official documentation the former is still used. However, the oral defense is held in once per semester usually in the middle or by the end with a presentation of revisions so-called "plenary presentation" at the end of each semester. Then follows a brief conclusion.
A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors. Questions are usually open-ended and require that the student think critically about his or her work. The criteria of the thesis assessment are stipulated in the relevant regulations.
Do you intend to seek grants to help you further develop your project? At the University of Oxford, for instance, any member of the University may attend a DPhil viva the University's regulations require that details of the examination and its time and place be published formally in advance provided he or she attends in full academic dress.