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All the editors are highly educated and spotted areas of improvement, allowing for very constructive suggestions. I will use D. Thank you! However, within 5 days of contacting Dissertation-Editor. I had tried other services and been disappointed, but not this time. It was nice to actually be able to speak with an editor throughout my writing process. Ellis adds a dimension to ethics in autoethnography: relational ethics, which refers to the ethics involved in writings about personal experiences where intimate others are included.
Should we ask consent from the people involved in autoethnographic narratives? It seems that there are no straightforward responses to this or to other ethical questions that may arise when engaged in autoethnography. As Ellis puts it: The bad news is that there are no definitive rules or universal principles that can tell you precisely what to do in every situation or relationship you may encounter, other than the vague and generic "do no harm" p.
This generic rule of no harm was not clear enough in its application for Wall , who, in spite of having consent from her family to write about her experience as an adoptive mother, was not free from feelings of guilt, as she expresses: I had a persistent and significant sense of anxiety about the tension between proceeding with an academic project and telling a story about my life that was inextricably intertwined with my son's p.
Along the same lines, Megford felt hurt when reading an autoethnographic account which erased her and made a part of her life that had some value for her disappear. She states Writing autoethnographically entails being ethical and honest about the events described as well as the content of words expressed by all the people involved in these events.
Criticisms of the method As Sparkes has stated, "The emergence of autoethnography and narratives of self…has not been trouble-free, and their status as proper research remains problematic" p. The most recurrent criticism of autoethnography is of its strong emphasis on self, which is at the core of the resistance to accepting autoethnography as a valuable research method.
Thus, autoethnographies have been criticised for being self-indulgent, narcissistic, introspective and individualised Atkinson, ; Coffey, Another criticism is of the reality personal narratives or autoethnographies represent, or, as Walford puts it, "If people wish to write fiction, they have every right to do so, but not every right to call it research" p. This criticism originates from a statement by Ellis and Bochner , conceiving autoethnography as a narrative that, "…is always a story about the past and not the past itself" p.
An opposite view is that of Walford , who asserts that "…the aim of research is surely to reduce the distortion as much as possible" p. Walford's concerns are focused on how much of the accounts presented as autoethnographies represent real conversations or events as they happened, and how much they are just inventions of the authors. According to Ellis and Bochner , recreating the past in a narrative way represents an "…existential struggle to move life forward" p.
For them, the subjectivity of the researcher is assumed and accepted as the value of autoethnography. Bochner and Ellis consider that a useful aim of personal narratives "… is to allow another person's world of experience to inspire critical reflection on your own" p.
Thus, the aim of autoethnography is to recreate the researcher's experience in a reflexive way, aiming at making a connection to the reader which can help him or her to think and reflect about his or her own experiences.
This has led to the criticism of considering the main goal of autoethnography as therapeutic rather than analytic Atkinson, Indeed, Walford sees no value in this type of autoethnography, since a social research report should aim at presenting organised, logical claims supported by empirical data. It is perhaps the closeness of the author to the phenomenon under investigation that causes such criticism. If researchers are supposed to be as distant as possible from the research in order to present as objective a truth as possible, how can this be accomplished by autoethnography?
However, as Denzin and Lincoln state, "Objective reality can never be captured. We can know a thing only through its representations" p. Thus, the richness of autoethnography is in those realities that emerge from the interaction between the self and its own experiences that reflect the cultural and social context in which those events took place. It is through this representation that understanding of a particular phenomenon is accomplished. Evaluation of autoethnography The problem of evaluating qualitative research has been a perennial struggle for those engaged in these practices.
Autoethnography has no specific rules or criteria to adhere to since it can be approached using diverse types of genre. Due to the particular characteristics of autoethnography, the reactions to a personal narrative cannot be foreseen and the interpretation may be varied Bochner and Ellis, Thus, the subjective interpretations that may arise from personal narratives oppose the positivist view of research which aims at presenting an objective account of the truth.
In addition, the personal and emotional involvement of the researcher in autoethnography contrasts with the distant and objective role of researchers' goals in a positivist stance. It is because of this that evaluating autoethnography is not a straightforward task and it seems that a general consensus has not been reached.
However, we can find some guidelines for an evaluation of an autoethnographic account. For Megford , the only criteria should be " Richardson a, p. It is important to note that Richardson's criteria refer to all types of ethnography including autoethnography, so it may be that some of the criteria proposed are not applicable to all types of autoethnography, which takes diverse forms and genres.
For Ellis , a good autoethnographic narrative should be able to engage your feeling and thinking capacities at the same time as generating in the reader questions regarding the experience, the position of the author, how the reader may have experienced the event described, or what the reader may have learned.
For me, autoethnography is educational research since, as expressed by Bochner and Ellis , it "… show s people in the process of figuring out what to do, how to live and what their struggles mean" p. In doing so, people are not only building meaning in their lives, but through these evocative narratives others may be able to reflect on similar experiences and then be able to do something beneficial for themselves and for others Ellis, Conclusion The purpose of qualitative research is to examine any social phenomenon by enabling the researcher to go into the participants' naturalistic setting and try to get a comprehensive understanding of it Bryman, Autoethnography, as with all research methods, has advantages and disadvantages.
Although autoethnography as a research method can be an unknown and difficult tool for novice researches to use, it is an instrument through which researchers can explore and portray the culture where a phenomenon is being experienced. References Anderson, L. Analytic autoethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35, Narrative turn or blind alley?
Qualitative Health Research, 7, Narrative frames for investigating the experiences of language teachers. System, 36, Talking over ethnography. Bochner Eds. Communication as autoethnography. Shepherd J. Striphas Eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Social research methods 3rd ed Oxford: Oxford University Press. Narrative inquiry: Experience and story inqualitative research. The ethnographic self.
London: Sage. Narrative inquiry. Lakomski Eds. Oxford: Elsevier Science. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methodsapproaches. Reed-Danahay, D. Reed-Danahay Ed. Oxford: Berg. Interpretive biography. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Interpretive ethnography: Ethnographic practices for the 21st century. Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. Lincoln Eds. Autoethnography, personal narrative, reflexivity: Researcher as subject.
Creating criteria: An ethnographic short story. Qualitative Inquiry, 6, The ethnographic I: A methodological novel about autoethnography. Telling secrets, revealing lives: Relational ethics in research with intimate others. Qualitative Inquiry, 13, Coda: Talking and thinking about qualitative research.
Giardina Eds. An introduction to qualitative research. Critical ethnography: The reflexive turn. Qualitative Studies in Education, 15, Extending the boundaries: Autoethnographyas an emergent method in mental health nursing research. International Journal of Mental Health, 15, Qualitative research in education.
Research and the teacher. London: Routledge. Representation, legitimation, and autoethnography: An autoethnographic writing story. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2, Jointly constructed narratives in classrooms: Co- Construction of friendship and community through language.
Teaching and Teacher Education, 13, Narrative frames and needs analysis. System, 40, Designing qualitative research. Gaps too large: Four novice EFL teachers' self-concept and motivation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 33, Phenomenology and ethnography. Atkinson, A. Coffey, S. Delamont, J. Lofland Eds. Autoethnography as a method for reflexive research and practice invocational psychology.
Australian Journal of Career Development, 17,
Atkinson, A. It is because of this particular approach to inquiry that personal narratives, experiences and opinions are valuable data which provide researchers with tools to find those tentative answers they are looking for Marshall and Rossman,
I can't thank you enough for your support, as informal as it was. Autoethnography, personal narrative, reflexivity: Researcher as subject. A qualitative method of inquiry which helped me in this purpose is narrative writing, because it focuses on researching "
This limitation also entails many ethical questions which sometimes may be very difficult for the researcher to answer, making autoethnographies a complicated method to follow. The second principle is the one of consent. However, Bochner and Ellis consider that this limitation on the self is not valid, since, "If culture circulates through all of us, how can autoethnography be free of connection to a world beyond the self? All the editors are highly educated and spotted areas of improvement, allowing for very constructive suggestions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 30, Thus, the aim of autoethnography is to recreate the researcher's experience in a reflexive way, aiming at making a connection to the reader which can help him or her to think and reflect about his or her own experiences.
Autoethnography has no specific rules or criteria to adhere to since it can be approached using diverse types of genre. Narrative frames for investigating the experiences of language teachers. I have reviewed the editing changes made and I'm happy with the quality of the work accomplished. System, 36, The emotional experience of learning English as a foreign language: Mexican ELT students' voices on motivation. Australian Journal of Career Development, 17,
Conclusion The purpose of qualitative research is to examine any social phenomenon by enabling the researcher to go into the participants' naturalistic setting and try to get a comprehensive understanding of it Bryman,
Qualitative Health Research, 1, For Ellis , a good autoethnographic narrative should be able to engage your feeling and thinking capacities at the same time as generating in the reader questions regarding the experience, the position of the author, how the reader may have experienced the event described, or what the reader may have learned.
It is perhaps the closeness of the author to the phenomenon under investigation that causes such criticism.
We can know a thing only through its representations" p. As mentioned before my own autoethnography was the first instrument I used in order to understand my participants' personal narratives about their emotions and motivation to learn a foreign language.