Chapter 2: Literature Review 2. What is Motivation? For many years the concept of motivation has been studied and described by many researchers and academics.
Moreover, Allscheid and Cellar describe motivation as a talent that is needed to have the ability to do any job while Broussard and Garrison defined it as a characteristic that pushes an individual to do or not to do a task given. Perseverance is considered to be the least important since it is basically a confirmation of the initial stimulation and direction processes. Motivation must be viewed on an individual basis since everyone is unique and is motivated in different ways. Forms of Motivation People can be motivated by various factors which are categorised into two main types.
Therefore this form of motivation is self-initiated like for example having a great interest in a task given. Intrinsic rewards are also known as psychological or intangible rewards and examples of these rewards are gratitude, education, environment and power. This extrinsically motivated behaviour often is a consequence of pressure and low self-esteem. Examples of extrinsic rewards also known as tangible rewards are bonuses, salaries, safety, recognition and job security Chen, et al.
Motivation versus Job Satisfaction Several studies have been done on motivation and job satisfaction. An example is a study done by Singh and Tiwari , which concluded that a positive relationship exists between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, the same results emerged in another study conducted by Ayub and Rafif on a sample of eighty bank managers. All these studies show that increase in job satisfaction impact positively on motivation.
Vinokur, Jayaaratne and Chess posit that the association between motivation and job satisfaction can be due to their related factors. Factors experienced by the employees in an organisation could motivate them to give an extra effort and concurrently satisfy their needs and add to job satisfaction. However, one cannot conclude that job satisfaction equals to motivation since other empirical research reported many differences between the two subjects.
According to Hersey and Blanchard , many different definitions exist that prove that work satisfaction and motivation are distinct from one other when measured against job performance. In a study done by Whisenand and Rush motivation is defined as a satisfaction of a need and a payout for doing a task while job satisfaction is described as a positive feeling that occurs after doing a job Locke, A research that was done on library employees on job satisfaction, motivation and organisational commitment, complicated relationships between the three variables were found.
A positive association between motivation and job satisfaction was reported but in contrast, while job satisfaction and organisational commitment had a positive relationship, motivation and organisational commitment resulted in the negative Tella, et al.
Job Motivation and Job Performance Initially, the connection between job motivation and job performance seems a very straightforward one but the link between them is much more complicated than expected.
It is imperative that motivation is not regarded as the sole aspect that determines performance but rather as a contributing factor Rainey, Mansoor defines motivation as the creation of a work environment that motivates employees and drives them to deliver at a better rate.
Furthermore, job motivation is vital to the organisational productivity since it motivates individuals and transforms them in high-performing employees that give a higher quality product or service Michie, et al. Latham and Pinder continuously study matters related to motivation and constantly reassess motivation theories and research developments on needs and values.
They recommend that the skill on how to learn, understand and forecast workplace motivation, can be achieved by constantly evaluating the various aspects that affect motivation in a holistic approach, rather than assessing different aspects individually.
They posit that culture, job characteristics and the link between the individual and the organisation, affects motivation and eventually job performance. Thirulogasundaram and Sahu state that low motivation can create a high level of absenteeism which impacts job performance while another study by Dobre showed that absenteeism is related to employee turnover which is when employees quit their job. Understanding the required steps and having the motivation to do the task are also requisites.
Motivation is an important part of the equation because if it is nil even the ablest person will not perform. Although some organisations argue that money spent on employee motivation is a waste, others state that resources spent on motivation are recouped back in a short time due to the greater performance by the motivated employees Khodov, Theories of Motivation The understanding of factors that motivate employees has always been a highly studied subject.
Various prominent thinkers like Aristotle, Sigmund Freud, and Abraham Maslow have focused on different motivational thoughts and theories and why an individual does things in a certain way and not in another. This section will discuss different theories that help to understand better the concept of motivation. Needs-Based Theories Need theories also well-known as content theories are the source for many other motivational theories and approaches. Maslow argues that before stepping to the next higher level a person must first satisfy the previous lower level of needs.
In terms of employee motivation, a person has to work to have a source of income to be capable of having access to basic necessities like food. Employees feel that they have a feeling of security when they know that they are guaranteed their salary. Employees may feel motivated when their workplace provides them with a social environment and feel part of it and can interact with other people. Others may find that they have reached their self - actualization when they enjoy doing their job and do it extremely well.
Maslow believes that the five needs are essential to succeed in achieving a better performance and satisfaction. This theory has been adopted by a large number of organisations and has resisted various criticism.
On the other hand, Graham and Messner are very critical to Maslow. They argue that it is a very unrealistic theory because it assumes that all employees and circumstances are the same and only one method exists to satisfy individual needs. Trying to adjust this theory in an organisation may be a tough challenge for managers because clear guidelines on how to apply it do not exist. Finally, growth refers to the inner need for developing personally. This equates with the needs of esteem and self-actualization described by Maslow and can be achieved by doing high quality and meaningful work Alderfer ERG Theory differs from Maslow's hierarchy of needs in three principal arguments.
Employee motivation and team building. Explore in your paper what is the best way to build a highly motivated team of employees.
Comparison between public and private companies: whose employees are motivated better? Do research and compare the motivational levels of employees in public and private sectors. Investigate whether an employee gets more motivated when the company where he or she works grows. Employee motivation and expectancy theory. Explore how to use a theory of expectations to better motivate employees.
Motivational techniques for non-profit organizations. Discuss the nuances of motivation in an environment of non-profit organization in your dissertation. Explore how different motivational techniques affect the work of employees. Regardless of the actual circumstances and situation, job satisfaction is an emotional response that cannot be seen, only inferred.
Jehanzeb, Rasheed, Rasheed and Aamir , p. Organisations must be seen to support employees in their daily work in order to bring about loyalty and improve retention by removing elements that may create dissatisfaction, while bearing in mind that in a heterogeneous environment, with male and female employees from different age groups, generations, and to a certain extent backgrounds, and with varying qualifications or experience, no single element will produce either universal approbation or collective disapproval.
Theories of Motivation 3. Based on the basic physical, biological, social and psychological needs of human beings, Maslow came up with a five-stage theory that places the needs of the individual in different categories and prioritizes their attainment. Teachers, like all people, have needs that have to be satisfied. Besides the basic needs for food, shelter and clothing, safety from physical, harm, and social interaction, they also need the recognition and appreciation of students, colleagues, and parents.
At the other end of the spectrum, Herzberg identified institutional politics, the management approach, supervision, pay, relationships at work and working conditions as factors that may demoralize employees. Employees should be promoted after completing certain stages of their career and should receive recognition for special achievements — for example, when they produce exceptional results in their subject areas; on a more basic level, they should also be given responsibility to determine how to handle tasks that relate to their jobs.
The Two-factor theory has however drawn its share of criticism. Golshan et al. Another criticism leveled against it is that it makes assumptions that every individual will react in the same way in the similar situation. Theory Y assumptions take the opposite view: the mental and physical inputs expended at the workplace are equated and par with those rest or play.
External factors or any threats from outside may not be the sole influence for exerting effort. Workers or people can exercise caution and discipline to have objectives achieved, but the hunger in their desire to commit to objectives is dependent on how big are the rewards as assigned to that kind of achievement. Under normal circumstances, people can adapt to seek responsibility and not only accept it Saif et al. Applying these assumptions to a school environment, one could argue that two of the main causes of dissatisfaction among teachers are having to deal with problem students and a strict and inconsiderate management, for example a principal who is coercive and does not appreciate the efforts of teachers, or an overly directive principal who never delegates or allows teachers to make independent decisions.
This theory is readily applicable to academic environments and explains why some teachers are high achievers, despite the difficulties they face: they set themselves high goals and achieving these goals is what drives them.
The equity theory postulates that employees will weigh their input into a job against the output they receive from it — the more the rewards, the greater their satisfaction. This resonates with Naveed et al.
Regarding this theory, employees who perceive that they receive more output from their jobs than what they put into them will experience job satisfaction.Discuss the real cases when de-motivation of employees has led to dreadful consequences for companies. This theory explains why public sector employees feel the necessity to assist the public and bond their actions to the public interest. For many years the concept of motivation has been studied and described by many researchers and academics. Theories of Motivation The understanding of factors that motivate employees has always been a highly studied subject.
Motivational factors like training, interpersonal relationships, challenging jobs, empowerment and rewards are amongst the motives that are supported by PSM Paarlberg, et al. On the other hand, if the given tasks are too challenging for them they may become less motivated because they may feel that they do not possess the required skills to accomplish. Although motivational theories are very affluent in literature a problematic issue is that they are not practical in the public sector because most of them have been based on employees in private organisations.
Motivation has for a long time been an important area for research and practice for academics and managers and various theories and approaches were established to describe different forms of motivation. They must ensure that targets are constantly met in a timely manner because failure will result that judgements and decrees are not enforced as required by law. Under normal circumstances, people can adapt to seek responsibility and not only accept it Saif et al.
Cite Harvard Badubi, R.
Risk Analysis of De-Motivated Employees in Organizations Employees who lack motivation in the work places are a risk factor when it comes to executing day to day operations of the business.
Motivation has for a long time been an important area for research and practice for academics and managers and various theories and approaches were established to describe different forms of motivation. The impact of motivation on job performance is presented from two different perspectives: the management and the employees. Moreover, most of these individuals unjustly associate Court employees as part of their problem. The theories of motivation maybe categorized according to their definitions and purpose but critical analysis reveal that they are all linked, they lead to serving satisfaction in employees. The importance of motivation in organizations and job satisfaction is vital for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. The Two-factor theory has however drawn its share of criticism.
Explore how to use a theory of expectations to better motivate employees. This scale consists of 24 items categorised in three dimensions that according to Perry attract individuals to work in the public service Wright,
At the other end of the spectrum, Herzberg identified institutional politics, the management approach, supervision, pay, relationships at work and working conditions as factors that may demoralize employees.
The role of employee motivation in an office environment. The theories of motivation maybe categorized according to their definitions and purpose but critical analysis reveal that they are all linked, they lead to serving satisfaction in employees. Vinokur, Jayaaratne and Chess posit that the association between motivation and job satisfaction can be due to their related factors. Authors identified five major job characteristics that impact on the psychological state of an employee and influence their motivation and job satisfaction, as well as their levels of absenteeism, namely the variety of skills involved in a task, the identity and significance of the task, autonomy, and feedback.
Furthermore, he states that encouraging feelings of relatedness and commitment will satisfy the higher needs of a person Trottier, et al. Later the responses are analysed with different methods and presented in different formats. This resonates with Naveed et al. Trust A definition of trust is what individuals think about each other and is based on the level of behaviour and communication adopted. Bruce and Pepitone , in their study on Theory Y, suggest that work recognition and self-satisfaction are important factors of motivation while Behn states that the work-life balance is another result of Theory Y. Employees may feel motivated when their workplace provides them with a social environment and feel part of it and can interact with other people.
Jehanzeb, Rasheed, Rasheed and Aamir , p. Egger-Peitler, et al.
Moreover, this sector suffers from old employees, who are known that they can be very challenging to motivate.
This will help to acquire the knowledge on what academics and researchers have concluded and found about topics of motivation. Furthermore, the same results emerged in another study conducted by Ayub and Rafif on a sample of eighty bank managers. Good marks in reviews may reflect that an employee is satisfied and bad marks may reflect the opposite. The potential problem with this theory is that there is a possibility of a relationship between what people desire and what they consider important. Egger-Peitler, et al.