There are almost as many variations of the Harvard system as there are institutions and publications that use it, and though the variations are generally pretty minor they include things like the following: Whether authors' names are capitalised in the references list Whether "p. Other reasons Beyond covering yourself, though, there are a couple of other reasons why you should practise good citation habits. Jones et al.
Will I use direct quotation or paraphrase? Furthermore, having a broad range of references in a text is an indicator of the breadth of a scholar's reading and research Jones et al. The year is always the first piece of information after the author's name in the reference list to allow you to quickly and easily match up a parenthetical reference with a bibliographic entry. Jones et al.
If you are citing the same item twice in a row i. You need to pay particularly close attention to this if you're using reference management software to keep track of your sources and generate your bibliography. Parenthetical styles generally work on the basis of economy. Furthermore, having a broad range of references in a text is an indicator of the breadth of a scholar's reading and research Jones et al. Skip straight to the issue that affects you:. If you think of your bibliography as something separate from the process of researching and writing and plan to leave it till the end, remembering every single source you cited and finding all its bibliographic details is going to be a daunting task, to say the least.
When referencing a single page, you should use p. In the event that a written work contains more than one work by a single author, that work is identified by the shortest possible reference to its title, for example; Scholars often complain that there are "far too many referencing styles for the young scholar to keep track of" Smith, Scholar's 6. But by far the most efficient way to store, retrieve, and cite the sources you find — especially if you're working with lots of recent, online sources — is to use reference management software. There are many different referencing styles and the three main categories are discussed below , but they all provide the same fundamental pieces of information to enable a reader to go and find a source you've cited in your work and look at it for themselves: The author of the work The title of the work The type of publication e. Jones et al. Plagiarism is not always dishonest — you may not be intentionally passing off someone else's work as your own — but if you don't cite any source that may have influenced your thinking you're open to plagiarism accusations.
Example: Amis, , iv Common issues When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Will I engage closely with a lot of my sources, or am I likely to cite briefly and in volume to note general trends in my field or in the literature? If you're in any doubt about whether a source has influenced an assertion you're making, cite it! The parenthetical reference includes the author's surname and the year of publication or just the year of publication if the author's name is clear from the context. Format and features MLA MLA is something of a special case among parenthetical referencing systems as it doesn't use dates to identify works.