Exit Interviews 6. Quality Circles 8. Customer Satisfaction Survey 9. Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance 2. Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisors 3.
Trainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants 4. Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done 21 22 On the Job Trainings: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working. Following are the on-the-job methods.
On the Job Training Methods Job Rotation: In this method, usually employees are put on different jobs turn by turn where they learn all sorts of jobs of various departments.
The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Advantage Employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function.
Interdepartmental coordination can be improved, instills team spirit. Disadvantage It may become too much for an employee to learn. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities. Employees basic talents may remain under utilized. Job Coaching: An experienced employee can give a verbal presentation to explain the nitty-grittys of the job.
Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task or a function. It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task. Apprenticeships: Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job. It may consist a part of their educational courses. Advantages of On-the-Job Training It is directly in the context of job It is often informal It is most effective because it is learning by experience It is least expensive Trainees are highly motivated It is free from artificial classroom situations Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training Trainer may not be experienced enough to train It is not systematically organized Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards 24 Off the Job Trainings: These are used away from work places while employees are not working like classroom trainings, seminars etc.
Following are the off-the-job methods; Off the Job Training Methods Classroom Lectures: It is a verbal lecture presentation by an instructor to a large audience. Advantage It can be used for large groups. Cost per trainee is low. Disadvantages Low popularity. It is not learning by practice. It is One-way communication. No authentic feedback mechanism. Likely to boredom. Advantages Wide range of realistic examples, quality control possible. Disadvantages One-way communication, No feedback mechanism.
No flexibility for different audience. Simulation: creating a real life situation for decision-making and understanding the actual job conditions give it. Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings 25 Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation and trainer is supposed to analyze and give his conclusions in writing.
The cases are generally based on actual organizational situations. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. HRD is a process of organizing and enhancing the physical, mental and emotional capacities of individuals for productive work. Definition 2: Bring possibility of performance and growth HRD means to bring about the possibility of performance improvement and individual growth.
Human resource development is a process to help people to acquire competencies and to increase their knowledge, skills and capabilities for better performance and higher productivity. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. The different Training Colleges need to be aggregated and the staff therein should think of working together for a common cause of training.
Work to make the training system unified and integrated. A step in this direction can be by standardizing study material. All Training Centres to fill this coffer. Time limit for contribution of data is to be fixed. Let there be division of labour. Everyone must contribute towards development of training system and bank. Identify areas where each faculty can contribute. All the nominations need strictly to be done through HRMS only. Further, in order to improve participation level in training programmes, the methodology of direct relieving of nominated staff at Circle offices level, as approved by the Board while approving Training Policy , may continue to be implemented strictly.
The nominated employee shall automatically stand relieved for the training programme on the date mentioned in the letter. They are leaders in Internet banking, mobile banking, phone banking, ATMs. As far as foreign banks are concerned they are likely to succeed in the Indian Banking Industry.
In India, small and medium enterprises SME is a generic term used to describe small scale industrial SSI units and medium-scale industrial units. As per the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act of , any industrial unit with a total investment in its fixed assets or leased assets or hire-purchase asset upto Rs10 million is considered as a SSI unit and investment up to Rs. In addition, an SSI unit should neither be a subsidiary of any other industrial unit nor can it be owned or controlled by any other industrial unit.
SME sector also has a large number of service industries. However, in order to make the size of the unit and the technology employed by firms to be globally competitive, the definition of Small Scale Sector was revisited. Subsequently, MSMED Act was operationalized with effect from 2nd October , which defines an enterprise instead of an industry to give recognition to service sector and also defines a medium enterprise to facilitate technology upgradation and graduation.
Banks were advised to formulate comprehensive and more liberal policies than the existing policies in respect of loans to SME Sector. From the perspective of industrial development in India, and hence the growth of the overall economy, SMEs have to play a prominent role, given that their labour intensiveness generates employment.
The SME segment also plays a major role in developing countries such as India in an effort to alleviate poverty and propel sustainable growth. They also lead to an equitable distribution of income due to the nature of business. Moreover, SMEs in countries such as India help in efficient allocation of resources by implementing labour intensive production Financing the SMEs in PNB Scope and Analysis 21 processes, given the abundant supply of labour in these countries, wherein capital is scarce.
SME policy initiatives at the national and state level are aimed at strengthening the role of SMEs at the base as well as at the higher level. With globalisation, all forms of production of goods and services are getting increasingly fragmented across countries and enterprises.
With large players adopting different models of business that include involvement of the traditional partners, suppliers or distributors at a different level, SMEs now are experiencing a new model of functioning in the value chain.
The past few years has seen the role of the SME segment evolve from a traditional manufacturer in the domestic market to that of an international partner. The restructuring of production at the international level through increased outsourcing is having significant effects on small and medium entrepreneurs in a positive as well as negative manner.
Demand in terms of new niche products and services are providing more opportunities for SMEs that are in a better position to take advantage of their flexible nature of operations. However, at the same time they have realized their drawback in terms of inadequate availability of managerial and financial resources, lack of working capital, personnel training and inability to innovate on a faster pace. The combined effect of market liberalisation and deregulation has forced the SME segment to change their business strategies for survival and growth.
Some of the changes that SMEs are focusing on include acquiring quality certifications, increasing use of ICT, creating e-business models and diversification to meet the increasing competition. SMEs through effective involvement in international trade by streamlining certain factors, such as, access to markets, access to technology, access to skills, finance, development of necessary infrastructure, SME-tax friendly environment, exchanges of best practices to name a few.
The SME sector has also registered a consistently higher growth rate than the overall manufacturing sector. In fact, it plays a dual role since the output produced by SMEs is not only about final consumption but also a source of capital goods in the form of inputs to heavy industries. Only 35 items remain in the reserved category from the total selected in denoting the declining monopoly of the SSI segment on the reserved products.
Also the government has put in place the Credit Guarantee Scheme to encourage banks to lend up to Rs 0. There has also been a recent budget announcement of setting up of a Risk Capital Fund. Though SMEs are being touted as the priority sector within the economy, they continue to face problems pertaining to finance.
When it comes to banks, they have a very traditional way of lending to this segment against collateral and SMEs end up being under financed. Evidently, the biggest challenge before the SMEs today is to have access to non debt based and non-traditional financial products such as external commercial borrowings, private equity, factoring etc. Foreign entities are also keen on promoting trade and cooperation between SMEs of different countries.
One as a beneficiary when somebody guarantees the payment of debt of bank's borrower in case of default. The other as a guarantor, when the bank itself promises to pay the dues or discharge the liabilities of its customers in favour of a third party.
While in the former case, the Bank is the creditor, in the latter case, Bank's liability is co-extensive with that of the debtor. Such an assurance letter is named as a "Letter of Credit". The borrower submits the project report and all the relevant documents to the bank. The project report was given to me for an in depth analysis. A pre-sanction appraisal and evaluation was then carried out by studying the companys financial statement.
On being assured of the credit worthiness of the borrower, the loan is disbursed. The maximum permissible bank finance will, therefore, be working capital gap less the amount to be so contributed by the borrower. The bank has its head office in New Delhi. Secondary data in terms of Financial Statements i. The data is then formatted as per the CMA requirement of the bank. The given data was studied and the relevant ratios were computed to ascertain the credit worthiness of the borrower.
The various parameters such as financial and industry were studied and hence a loan appraisal was created. To formulate norms of lending to SME sector, to ensure availability of adequate and timely credit to the sector To provide guidelines to the branches to dispense credit to SME Sector. To devise an organizational structure at all levels for handling SME credit portfolio in a more focused manner.
Bank has therefore for internal purposes given focused attention to finance all Commercial enterprises i. All other entities with their annual sales turnover of Rs. Clubs, Trusts, etc. However, such units, which are outside the purview of regulatory definition will not form part of Priority Sector lending. Credit Risk Rating Credit Risk Rating is a rating assigned to borrowers, based on an analysis of their ability and willingness to repay the debt taken from the bank.
This rating is assigned on a scale, which generally has 6 to 8 levels. Companies falling in the same credit risk category have similar probability of default. Better the rating, lower is the probability of default. The probability of default increases in an exponential manner as the credit risk rating deteriorates. The most significant achievement of the financial sector reforms has been the marked improvement in the financial health of commercial banks in terms of capital adequacy, profitability and asset quality as also greater attention to risk management.
Further, deregulation has opened up new opportunities for banks to increase revenues by diversifying into investment banking, insurance, credit cards, depository services, mortgage financing, securitisation, etc.
At the same time, liberalisation has brought greater competition among banks,both domestic and foreign, as well as competition from mutual funds, NBFCs, post office, etc. Post-WTO, competition will only get intensified, as large global players emerge on the scene. Increasing competition is squeezing profitability and forcing banks to work efficiently on shrinking spreads.
A positive fallout of competition is the greater choice available to consumers,and the increased level of sophistication and technology in banks. As banks benchmark themselves against global standards, there has been a marked increase in disclosures and transparency in bank balance sheets as also greater focus on corporate governance. Interest rates on deposits and lending have been deregulated with banks enjoying greater freedom to determine their rates.
Government equity in banks has been reduced and strong banks have been allowed to access the capital market for raising additional capital. MFs and corporates can now undertake FRAs with banks. Indians allowed to maintain resident foreign currency domestic accounts. Full convertibility for deposit schemes of NRIs introduced.
With bankspermitted to diversify into long- term finance and DFIs into working capital, guidelines have been put in place for the evolution of universal banks in an orderly fashion.
Prudential norms for capital adequacy, asset classification, income recognition and provisioning are now close to global standards. RBI has introduced Risk Based Supervision of banks against the traditional transaction based approach.
Best international practices in accounting systems, corporate governance,payment and settlement systems, etc. The definition of priority sector has been widened to include food processing and cold storage, software upto Rs 1 crore, housing above Rs 10 lakh,selected lending through NBFCs, etc.The appraisal report should highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the management by commenting on the background, qualifications, experience, and capability of the promoter, key management personnel, and effectiveness of the internal control systems, relation with labor, working conditions, wage structure, and the other assigned essential functions. Work Sampling 7. According to data analysed by RBI, there has been a noticeable decline in the difference between real interest rates in India and international Gitarattan international business school 16 A Study On Various Services Offered By Punjab National Bank benchmark rates LIBOR 1 year since the mids, suggesting increased integration of the Indian banking sector with the rest of the world. I hereby declare also this study has not been permitted by me to publish anywhere I have collected data from various sources which are acknowledged in the bibliography. It is relevant that there will be large organizations to the capital base and skills on the liability side. Unsolvable demand projections keeping in view the size of the bank, consumption level, supply position, export report, rap substitute, etc. A year later, in Order,the combined endowment of branches held by public management Igcse english reading paper mark scheme chemistry was 60, training India, and deposits brooded for Rs. Further, fated of indigenous and imported raw talent, firm arrangements for procurement of the same etc. It may be published as a science of studying how research is done national. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved, instills envision spirit. The paying permissible bank finance will, therefore, be genuine capital gap less the amount to be so overcome by the borrower. Online banking channels have become key in the last 10 hours. The nominated summer shall not stand relieved for the training language on the date mentioned in the letter.
They are leaders in Internet banking, mobile banking, phone banking, ATMs.
Some of the changes that SMEs are focusing on include acquiring quality certifications, increasing use of ICT, creating e-business models and diversification to meet the increasing competition. The next round of nationalization took place in April Prudential norms for capital adequacy, asset classification, income recognition and provisioning are now close to global standards. I promise that I will help wherever needed to the company. SME sector also has a large number of service industries.
Last but not the least Im also grateful to my parents for providing me the continuous support to motivate me to successfully complete my report.
On first day i was nervous, but because of the good image of the bank in the market the people attended me positively.. In making the project report practical knowledge was needed more than the theoretical, which was given by MR. Power, Water, Transport, Communication, state of information technology etc.
Organizational Climate Indices 4. The total deposits in the banks nationalized in amounted to 50 crores. In a rapid changing society employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force.
Credit Risk Rating Structure The credit risk rating model has been developed to capture credit risk factors under areas viz. It is to be seen that site selected has adequate availability of infrastructure facilities viz.
Class Room Training programmes, which are conducted at respective Training Centres. After allocating scores to all the parameters, the aggregate score is calculated and displayed by the software. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved, instills team spirit. The first entirely Indian bank, Commercial Bank, was established in in Faizabad, but failed in It is derived by comparing the successive Financing the SMEs in PNB Scope and Analysis 45 balance sheets on two specified dates and finding out the net changes in the various items appearing in the balance sheets.
I thank the staff of the bank for giving me this opportunity at their office and being good to me all the time. Foreign entities are also keen on promoting trade and cooperation between SMEs of different countries. Here I have discussed what would be the input of training if we ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from it What are the ways we can identify the training need of any employee and how to know what kind of training he can go for? Development is integral part of training if some body is trained properly and efficiently the developments of that individual and the company for whom he is working. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.
A decade of economic and financial sector reforms has strengthened the fundamentals of the Indian economy and transformed the operating environment for banks and financial institutions in the country. The major cost components of any project are land and building including transfer, registration and development charges as also plant and machinery, equipment for auxiliary services, including transportation, insurance, duty, clearing, loading and unloading charges etc. Unfortunately they are burdened with excessive Non Performing assets NPAs , massive manpower and lack of modern technology. Researcher always needs to understand the assumptions underline various techniq ue and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain technique and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and other will not. Like all normal class room trainings, nomination to such Training Programmes shall also be entered on HRMS by the respective nominating authority.
RBI has introduced Risk Based Supervision of banks against the traditional transaction based approach. So, with reverence, veneration honor I acknowledge mr. It is to be ascertained that requirement of finance has been properly tied-up for unhindered implementation of a project. Companies falling in the same credit risk category have similar probability of default. Attitude Surveys 5. In making the project report practical knowledge was needed more than the theoretical, which was given by MR.
Quality Circles 8. Attitude Surveys 5. On the Job Training Methods Job Rotation: In this method, usually employees are put on different jobs turn by turn where they learn all sorts of jobs of various departments. It is not learning by practice. The areas are bifurcated into sub-areas and each subarea is further split into a number of parameters. This ratio of 1.