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Few of us have heard of him; still fewer have read any of his writings. If known at all, he is probably coupled, in a semi-contemptuous manner, with other foreign representatives of a phase of poetic thought, the influence of which has passed its zenith. As a contemporary of Byron, Leopardi is perhaps credited with a certain amount of psychological plagiarism, and possibly disregarded as a mere satellite of the greater planet.
But if this be so, it is unjust. His fame is his own, and time makes his isolation and grand individuality more and more prominent. But he is more than this. The jewel of his renown is [Pg viii] triple-faceted. Philology, poetry, and philosophy were each in turn cultivated by him, and he was of too brilliant an intellect not to excel in them all.
As a philologist he astonished Niebuhr and delighted Creuzer; as a poet he has been compared with Dante; as a philosopher he takes high rank among the greatest and most original men of modern times. One of his biographers Dovari: "Studio di G. Leopardi," Ancona, has termed him "the greatest philosopher, poet, and prose-writer of the nineteenth century.
In Germany and France, Leopardi is perhaps as well known and highly appreciated as in Italy. His poems have been translated into the languages of those countries; and in France, within the last year, two more or less complete versions of his prose writings have appeared. Biographies, reviews, and lighter notices of the celebrated Italian are of repeated and increasing occurrence on the Continent.
England, however, knows little of him, and hitherto none of his writings have been made accessible to the English reading public. The following brief outline of his life may in part help to explain the peculiarly sombre philosophical views which he held, and of which his works are chiefly an elaboration.
Giacomo Leopardi was born at Recanati, a small town about fifteen miles from Ancona, on the [Pg ix] 29th June He was of noble birth, equally on the side of his father and mother. Provided with a tutor at an early age, he soon left him far behind in knowledge; and when only eight years old, he discarded the Greek grammar he had hitherto used, and deliberately set himself the task of reading in chronological order the Greek authors of his father's library.
It was due to his own industry, and his father's care, that later he acquired a perfect acquaintance with classical literature. In he received his first tonsure, in token of his dedication to the Church; but this early promise was not destined to be fulfilled. Before he was eighteen years of age Leopardi had attained recognised distinction for the amount and matter of his erudition.
The mere catalogue of his writings—chiefly philological—by that time is of sufficient length to excite wonder, and their nature is still more surprising. Latin commentaries and classical annotations were apparently child's play to him. Writing in to the Roman scholar Cancellieri, who had noticed one of these classical productions, Leopardi says: "I see myself secured to posterity in your writings Commerce with the learned is not only useful, but necessary for me.
This was an "Essay on the Popular Errors of the Ancients," of considerable length first published posthumously , in the course of which he cites more than four hundred authors, ancient and modern. A single extract will suffice to show [Pg x] that his youthful powers of expression were as precocious as his learning, though his judgment was doubtless at fault.
He thus reviews the wisdom of the Greeks: "The philosophy of the ancients was the science of differences; and their academies were the seats of confusion and disorder. Aristotle condemned what Plato had taught.
Socrates mocked Antisthenes; and Zeno scandalised Epicurus. Pythagoreans, Platonians, Peripatetics, Stoics, Cynics, Epicureans, Sceptics, Cyrenaics, Megarics, Eclectics scuffled with and ridiculed one another; while the truly wise laughed at them all. The people, left to themselves during this hubbub, were not idle, but laboured silently to increase the vast mound of human errors. In Leopardi made acquaintance by letter with Pietro Giordani, one of the leading literary men of the day, and a man of varied experience and knowledge.
In his first letter Leopardi opens his heart to his new friend: "I have very greatly, perhaps immoderately, yearned for glory I burn with love for Italy, and thank Heaven that I am an Italian.
A month later, from the same source we are able to discern traces of that characteristic of Leopardi's temperament which by certain critics is thought to explain his philosophy. Writing to Giordani, he expatiates on the discomforts of Recanati and its climate; and proceeds:— "Added to all this is the obstinate, black, and barbarous melancholy which devours and destroys me, which is nourished by study, and yet increases when I forego study.
I have in past times had much experience of that sweet sadness which generates fine sentiments, and which, better than joy, may be said to resemble the twilight; but my condition now is like an eternal and horrible night.
A poison saps my powers of body and mind. To be a good prose writer first, and a poet later, seems to me to be contrary to nature, which first creates the poet, and then by the cooling operation of age concedes the maturity and tranquillity necessary for prose. The correspondence between Leopardi and Giordani lasted for five years, and it is from their published letters that we are able to form the best possible estimate of Leopardi's character and aspirations.
His own letters serve as the index of [Pg xii] his physical and mental state. In them we trace the gradual failure of his health, the growth of sombreness in his disposition, and the change which his religious convictions underwent. During his twentieth year he suffered severely in mind and body. Forced to lay aside his studies, he was constantly a prey to ennui, with all its attendant discomforts.
He thus writes to Giordani of his condition, in August "My ill-health makes me unhappy, because I am not a philosopher who is careless of life, and because I am compelled to stand aloof from my beloved studies Another thing that makes me unhappy, is thought. I believe you know, but I hope you have not experienced, how thought can crucify and martyrise any one who thinks somewhat differently from others. I have for a long time suffered such torments, simply because thought has always had me entirely in its power; and it will kill me unless I change my condition.
Solitude is not made for those who burn and are consumed in themselves. His mental activity was numbed by his physical incapacity; the two combined reduced him to a state of despair. There is a noble fortitude in the following words of another letter addressed to Giordani:— "I have for a long time firmly believed that I must die within two or three years, because I have so ruined myself by seven years of immoderate and incessant study I am conscious that my life cannot be other than unhappy, yet I am not frightened; and if I could in any way be useful, I would endeavour to bear my condition without losing heart.
I have passed years so [Pg xiii] full of bitterness, that it seems impossible for worse to succeed them; nevertheless I will not despair even if my sufferings do increase I am born for endurance. Leopardi was now of age, and at the time of life when mans aspirations are keenest. He had repeatedly tried to induce his father to let him go forth into the world, and take his place in the school of intellect; but all his endeavours were in vain.
Though seconded by Giordani, who some months before had become personally acquainted with his young correspondent during a visit of a few days to Casa Leopardi, the Count was resolute in refusing to grant his son permission to leave Recanati. Giacomo, driven to desperation, conceived a plan by which he hoped to fulfil his desire in spite of the paternal prohibition.
The following extract from the Count's diary furnishes the gist of the matter, and also gives us some small insight into his own character:— "Giacomo, wishing to leave the country, and seeing that I was opposed to his doing so, thought to obtain my consent by a trick. He requested Count Broglio to procure a passport for Milan, so that I might be alarmed on hearing of it, and thus let him go. I knew about it, because Solari wrote unwittingly to Antici, wishing Giacomo a pleasant journey.
I immediately asked Broglio to send me the passport, which he did with an accompanying letter. I showed all to my son, and deposited the passport in an open cupboard, telling him he could take it at his leisure. So all ended. Two letters written in anticipation of the success of his scheme, one to his father, and the other to Carlo, his brother, are of most painful interest.
They suggest unfilial conduct on his part, and unfatherly treatment of his son on the part of Count Monaldo. How thankful I should be if the step I am taking might act as a warning to our parents, as far as you and our brothers are concerned! I heartily trust you will be less unhappy than myself. I care little for the opinion of the world; nevertheless, exonerate me if you have any opportunity of doing so What am I?
I realise this most intensely, and the knowledge of it has determined me to take this step, to escape the self-contemplation which so disgusts me. So long as I possessed self-esteem I was prudent; but now that I despise myself, I can only find relief by casting myself on fortune, and seeking dangers, worthless thing that I am It were better humanly speaking for my parents and myself that I had never been born, or had died ere now. Farewell, dear brother.
It is stern and severe, and contains reproofs, direct and inferential, for his apparent indifference to his sons' future prospects. Giacomo upbraids him with intentional blindness to the necessities of his position as a youth of generally acknowledged ability, for whom Recanati could offer no scope, or chance of renown. He goes on to say: [Pg xv] "Now that the law has made me my own master, I have determined to delay no longer in taking my destiny on my own shoulders.
I know that man's felicity consists in contentment, and that I shall therefore have more chance of happiness in begging my bread than through whatever bodily comforts I may enjoy here I know that I shall be deemed mad; and I also know that all great men have been so regarded. And because the career of almost every great genius has begun with despair, I am not disheartened at the same commencement in mine. I would rather be unhappy than insignificant, and suffer than endure tedium Fathers usually have a better opinion of their sons than other people; but you, on the contrary, judge no one so unfavourably, and therefore never imagined we might be born for greatness It has pleased Heaven, as a punishment, to ordain that the only youths of this town with somewhat loftier aspirations than the Recanatese should belong to you, as a trial of patience, and that the only father who would regard such sons as a misfortune should be ours.
The Count has been called "despota sistematico" in the administration of his household; and the most favourably disposed writers have agreed to regard him as somewhat of a Roman father. But there does not seem to be sufficient evidence to support the theory that he was intentionally harsh and repressive to the extent of cruelty in his treatment of his children.
He was an Italian of the old school, and as such his conduct was probably different from [Pg xvi] that of more modern Italian fathers; but that was all. The following literal translation of the first stanza of the Ode to Italy gives but a faint echo of the original verse:— "O my country, I see the walls and arches, the columns, the statues, and the deserted towers of our ancestors; but their glory I see not, nor do I see the laurel and the iron which girt our forefathers.
To-day, unarmed, thou showest a naked brow and naked breast. How pale thou art, and bleeding! Why Is There Poverty? For more information click here. Free The Great Gatsby Money papers, essays, and research papers. Zanzarah: The Hid- den Portal.
A large world with diversified landscapes. The world of Orlando Furioso stretches from Scotland to India and from Paris to Jerusalem, but it also includes imagi- nary locations, such as the island of the enchantress Alcina.
The plot even takes characters from the earth to the moon. The world of an online game, similarly, covers multiple regions, each with its own possibilities of action, and it may take several months to travel from one end of this world to another.
Computer-con- trolled nonplaying characters inform the player of the folklore and backstories that relate to the various regions. Magical modes of travel. In both Orlando and online worlds, characters are knights errant in constant search of adventures. An important way to travel across the world of Orlando is to use supernatural means, such as riding a winged horse or drinking a magic potion. In online games, similarly, players can be instantly teletransported by using magic spells.
A variety of roles to choose from. These characters are drawn from a metamythology that combines legendary historical figures Charlemagne , literary heroes Orlando, a counterpart of the French hero Roland , human types knights, emperors, and princesses , supernatural creatures from medieval mythology the enchanter Merlin , Christian figures the archangel St.
Michael , a Greek god Neptune , and species borrowed from folklore, such as dwarves, wizards, amazons, Pegasus, and sea monsters. In online worlds, players create their own character by selecting its gender, class, and species from a repertory of features that allows almost endless combinations. The catalog of available species of EverQuest includes, for instance, druids, trolls, elves, gnomes, and necromancers, all characterized by different abilities.
Distributed narrativity. Orlando Furioso moves back and forth between two parallel subplots: the story of Orlando and of his rage after discovering that his beloved, Angelica, is in love with another knight, and the story of the female warrior Bradamante who conquers a husband, Ruggiero, through her heroic deeds. Embedded in these two main plot lines are numerous subplots that take place simultaneously in various parts of the fictional world.
In an online world, there is no general storyline but multiple sequences of action corresponding to the tasks known as quests given to the player by computer-controlled nonplaying characters NPCs.
At any given moments, multiple quests are being performed in different parts of the virtual world. Fighting as a way to acquire merit. Almost every one of the forty-six cantos of the Orlando describes a duel. Characters fight to free damsels in distress, to help Charlemagne defeat the Saracens, or to conquer lovers. In online worlds, simi- larly, fighting monsters is the principal way to progress in the game. Continuously expanding worlds.
From a narrative and compositional point of view, both online games and the Orlando are never-ending projects. Narrative versus Ludic Pleasures In my comparison between the worlds of online games and of Or- lando Furioso, I have lost track of the Ariosto board game and focused exclusively on the symbolic spatial practice, or world-creating power, of the poem itself.
A complete fusion of game and story should be able to combine both types of experience. Such a combination would fuse a ludic, partly corporeal immersion in the fictional world, which is an intense absorption in a specific task, comparable to the concentration of a violinist performing a concerto, with a more properly narrative and more purely mental im- mersion, which is an engagement of the imagination in the construction and contemplation of a concrete story world populated by intelligent creatures.
I would call this world fictional, if some stories did not pur- port to represent the real world. This second kind of immersion can take at least at least five forms—spatial, epistemic, temporal, emotional, and social—which present variable degrees of compatibility with the physically active stance of the first type. This explains the overwhelming pre- dominance of epic stories in computer games—stories about the travels of a lonesome hero through a landscape full of dangers—as opposed to dramatic stories that focus on an evolving network of human relations.
The prototypical manifestation of epistemic immersion—the desire to know—is the mystery story. This effect is relatively easy to achieve in a game environment. The player impersonates the detective and investigates the case through the modes of interaction made available by computer systems: moving the avatar through the game world; pick- ing up telltale objects and extracting information from NPCs through a dialogue, which can either be based on a menu of canned questions to ask or rely on a language-understanding system that allows the players to compose their own questions.
In this configuration, as Jenkins observes, the fixed and therefore noninteractive narrative of the past is embedded in an interactive game world, in which the player enacts the narrative of the investigation. When participation takes the form of spatial explora- tion and leads to unexpected discoveries, its motivation is curiosity and its reward is surprise. Like epistemic immersion, suspense is created by an intense desire to know, but while epistemic immersion concerns events that already happened, suspense is focused on the future.
People experience suspense when they can foresee two or more possible developments and are dying to find out which one of these paths the story will actualize. But when players can determine the path through their choice of actions, the uncertainty is lost. And if the system generates an accidental event to prevent the player from fully controlling the outcome of the events, the effect will be surprise rather than suspense.
The combination of emotional immersion with interactivity is the most problematic of all because it involves interpersonal relations between the player and computer-operated characters. Exceedingly rare—at least so far—are the computer-controlled characters who not only serve a functional role by helping or hindering players in the pursuit of their goals but in ad- dition generate interest and empathy through their own personality.
The resolution of the conflict between these two perspectives is one of the most daunting tasks that await the designers of playable narrative worlds. For a computer-created charac- ter to generate emotional responses, it should be able to communicate with the player in such a way as to give the impression of possessing a mind—a task that challenges even the most powerful artificial intelligence systems, as we can see from the modest achievements of computers in taking the Turing test.
Multiplayer online worlds take advantage of both the space-build- ing resources of digital systems and the natural intelligence of players by offering a wide variety of activities that belong to both paidia and ludus: language-based communication with other players, world-exploration, the performance of quests for example, micronarratives scripted into the world, and the manipulation or construction of virtual objects.
The need for interaction with other intelligent beings pursuing common goals leads not only to the occasional formation of emotional bonds with other characters but, more importantly, to social immersion in virtual commu- nities, an experience truly unique to the worlds of online games.
It were an omission not to refer to the influence which love exerted over Leopardi's life.
Their matter may be open to criticism; but their manner is beyond praise. He was of noble birth, equally on the side of his father and mother. A statue is now raised to Leopardi in the place that refused to honour him in life. Act persuasive essay rubric high school los fusilamientos de la moncloa goya analysis essay essay about myself for kids eponymous character definition essay psychotherapie antrag beispiel essay. But there does not seem to be sufficient evidence to support the theory that he was intentionally harsh and repressive to the extent of cruelty in his treatment of his children.
He had passed the Rubicon of his hopes; henceforth he studied to expound to the world the uselessness of its own anticipations, and its essential unhappiness. The playfield of this narrative treasure hunt is only a few meters wide, but it stands symbolically for the entire city of Berlin and for the thousands of stories that silently scream to be heard at every address where a Jewish family used to live. At Naples Ranieri and his sister Paulina did all they could for Leopardi, and from to his death in supplied all his wants. Though seconded by Giordani, who some months before had become personally acquainted with his young correspondent during a visit of a few days to Casa Leopardi, the Count was resolute in refusing to grant his son permission to leave Recanati.
To obtain what relief was possible from change of air, and to remove himself from Recanati, which he detested increasingly, Leopardi went to Bologna, Florence, Milan, and Pisa, wintering now at one place, now at another. You have passed then from the National Forests that surrounds the park—forests that serve principally as state-subsidized nurseries for large timber companies and hence are not distinguishable from the tracts of privately-owned forest with which they are contiguous—to the park itself, marked by payment of New Literary History, , — new literary history admission to the uniformed ranger at the entrance kiosk, and finally to a third and privileged zone of publicly demarcated Nature. In either case the real is sacrificed to the ideal, whether of good or evil. In both Orlando and online worlds, characters are knights errant in constant search of adventures. She was distressed about the rupture of a matrimonial arrangement contracted by the Count between her and a certain Roman gentleman of position and fortune. Act persuasive essay rubric high school los fusilamientos de la moncloa goya analysis essay essay about myself for kids eponymous character definition essay psychotherapie antrag beispiel essay.
Once I hoped these dear resources would have been the support of my old age: pleasures of childhood and youth might vanish, I thought, and their loss would be supportable if I were thus cherished and strengthened. Their matter may be open to criticism; but their manner is beyond praise.
Niebuhr, then Prussian ambassador at the Papal Court, Reinhold, the Dutch ambassador, Mai, subsequently a cardinal, were [Pg xxi] noble exceptions to the general inferiority. On the night of the 15th he was buried, in the church of St.
Most serifs, on the other hand, do have a true italic style, with distinctive letter forms and more compact spacing. Friedrich von Borries, Steffen P. Reproduced with permission of the developers. He who loves is filled with the ecstasy of the phantom love conceived by his imagination. The world of Orlando Furioso stretches from Scotland to India and from Paris to Jerusalem, but it also includes imagi- nary locations, such as the island of the enchantress Alcina. Giacomo upbraids him with intentional blindness to the necessities of his position as a youth of generally acknowledged ability, for whom Recanati could offer no scope, or chance of renown.