Cameron was a friend of these Victorian celebrities, knowing them well, tried to capture their personalities in her photographs. Among Cameron's lesser-known models was Mary Emily Prinsep, wife of Hallam Tennyson , 2nd Baron Tennyson , the elder son of Alfred Tennyson and a British colonial ad Harp The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard.
Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia and Europe , dating back at least as early as BC; the instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance , where it evolved into a wide range of variants with new technologies, was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America. Although some ancient members of the harp family died out in the Near East and South Asia , descendants of early harps are still played in Myanmar and parts of Africa, other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been utilized by musicians in the modern era.
Harps vary globally in many ways. In terms of size, many smaller harps can be played on the lap, whereas larger harps are quite heavy and rest on the floor. Different harps may use strings of catgut , metal, or some combination. While all harps have a neck and strings, frame harps have a pillar at their long end to support the strings, while open harps, such as arch harps and bow harps, do not. Modern harps vary in techniques used to extend the range and chromaticism of the strings, such as adjusting a string's note mid-performance with levers or pedals which modify the pitch.
The pedal harp is a standard instrument in the orchestra of the Romantic music era and the contemporary music era; the earliest harps and lyres were found in Sumer , BC, several harps were found in burial pits and royal tombs in Ur. The oldest depictions of harps without a forepillar can be seen adjacent to the Near East, in the wall paintings of ancient Egyptian tombs in the Nile Valley , which date from as early as BC; these murals show an instrument that resembles the hunter's bow, without the pillar that we find in modern harps.
The chang flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about BC, until the 17th century. Around BC arched harps in the Iraq—Iran region were replaced by angular harps with vertical or horizontal sound boxes. By the start of the Common Era , "robust, angular harps", which had become predominant in the Hellenistic world, were cherished in the Sasanian court.
In the last century of the Sasanian period, angular harps were redesigned to make them as light as possible. At the height of the Persian tradition of illustrated book production, such light harps were still depicted, although their use as musical instruments was reaching its end; the works of the Tamil Sangam literature describe the harp and its variants, as early as BC. Variants were described ranging from 14 to 17 strings, the instrument used by wandering minstrels for accompaniment.
Another early South Asian harp was the ancient veena ; some Samudragupta gold coins show of the mid-4th century AD show the king Samudragupta himself playing the instrument. The ancient veena survives today in the form of the saung harp still played there; the harp was popular in ancient China and neighboring regions, though harps are extinct in East Asia in the modern day.
The Chinese konghou harp is documented as early as the Spring and Autumn period , became extinct during the Ming Dynasty. A similar harp, the gonghu was played in ancient Korea, documented as early as the Goguryeo period. Harps are triangular and made of wood.
Strings are made of gut or wire replaced in the modern day by nylon , or metal; the top end of each string is secured on the crossbar or neck, where each will have a tuning peg or similar device to adjust the pitch.
From the crossbar, the string runs down to the sounding board on the resonating body, where it is secured with a knot, it is the distance between the tuning peg and the soundboard , as well as tension and weight of the string, which decide the pitch of the string.
The body is hollow, when a taut string is plucked, the body resonates, projecting sound; the longest side of the harp is called the column or pillar, though some earlier harps, such as a "bow harp", lack a pillar. On most harps the sole purpose of the pillar is to hold up the neck against the great strain of the strings. On harps which have pedals, the pillar is a hollow column and encloses the rods which adjust the pitches, which are levered by pressing pedals at the base of the instrument.
On harps of earlier design, a given string can play only a single note without retuning. In many cases this means such a harp can only play in one key at a time and must be manually retuned to play in another key. Various remedies to this limitation evolved: the addition of extra strings to cover chromatic notes, addition of small levers on the crossbar which when actuated raise the pitch of a string by a set interval, or use of pedals at the base of the instrument which change the pitch of a string when pressed with the foot; these solutions increase the versatility of a harp at the cost of adding complexity and expense.
While the angle and bow harps held popularity String instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicians play some string instruments by plucking the strings with their fingers or a plectrum—and others by hitting the strings with a light wooden hammer or by rubbing the strings with a bow.
In some keyboard instruments, such as the harpsichord , the musician presses a key that plucks the string. With bowed instruments, the player pulls a rosined horsehair bow across the strings, causing them to vibrate.
With a hurdy-gurdy , the musician cranks. Bowed instruments include the string section instruments of the Classical music orchestra and a number of other instruments. All of the bowed string instruments can be plucked with the fingers, a technique called " pizzicato ". A wide variety of techniques are used to sound notes on the electric guitar , including plucking with the fingernails or a plectrum , strumming and "tapping" on the fingerboard and using feedback from a loud, distorted guitar amplifier to produce a sustained sound.
Some types of string instrument are plucked, such as the harp and the electric bass. In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification , used in organology , string instruments are called chordophones. Other examples include the sitar , banjo , mandolin and bouzouki.
In most string instruments, the vibrations are transmitted to the body of the instrument, which incorporates some sort of hollow or enclosed area; the body of the instrument vibrates, along with the air inside it. The vibration of the body of the instrument and the enclosed hollow or chamber make the vibration of the string more audible to the performer and audience; the body of most string instruments is hollow.
Some, however—such as electric guitar and other instruments that rely on electronic amplification—may have a solid wood body. Dating to around c. From the musical bow, families of stringed instruments developed. In turn, this led to being able to play chords. Another innovation occurred when the bow harp was straightened out and a bridge used to lift the strings off the stick-neck , creating the lute ; this picture of musical bow to harp bow has been contested.
In Franz Jahnel wrote his criticism stating that the early ancestors of plucked instruments are not known, he felt that the harp bow was a long cry from the sophistication of the 4th-century BC civilization that took the primitive technology and created "technically and artistically well-made harps, lyres and lutes. The development of lyre instruments required the technology to create a tuning mechanism to tighten and loosen the string tension. Lyres with wooden bodies and strings used for plucking or playing with a bow represent key instruments that point towards harps and violin-type instruments.
Musicologists have put forth examples of that 4th-century BC technology, looking at engraved images that have survived. The earliest image showing a lute-like instrument came from Mesopotamia prior to BC.
A cylinder seal from c. From the surviving images, theororists have categorized the Mesopotamian lutes, showing that they developed into a long variety and a short; the line of long lutes may have developed into pandura. The line of short lutes was further developed to the east of Mesopotamia, in Bactria and Northwest India , shown in sculpture from the 2nd century BC through the 4th or 5th centuries AD. During the medieval era, instrument development varied from country to country.
Middle Eastern rebecs represented breakthroughs in terms of shape and strings, with a half a pear shape using three strings. However, it is notable that Strauss used Bernhoff to prepare singable English translations of most of his well-known songs, including the four volume Universal Edition collection  as well as the 5 Opus 39 songs which included Befreit, published by Rob Forberg.
Dehmel on Befreit[ edit ] Richard Dehmel , the author of the lyrics, in Dehmel wrote about the poem: I, for my part, had the picture of a man speaking to his dying wife. But, as works of art only aim at arousing human sensations and feelings in rhythmic harmony, I do not mind in the least that the allegory is also conceived of the other way around Such mutual elevations of the soul — at least noble souls — apply not only to death, but to any parting for life; for every leave taking is related to death, and what we give up forever, we give back to the world The orchestral song was first performed in Berlin on 13 October with the composer conducting the Berlin Philharmonic and Ursuleac singing.
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People enjoy eating delicious meal with families and relatives by getting together. Her style was not appreciated in her own day: her choice to use a soft focus and to treat photography as an art as well as a science, by manipulating the wet collodion process, caused her works to be viewed as " slovenly ", marred by "mistakes" and bad photography, she found more acceptance among pre-Raphaelite artists than among photographers. On harps which have pedals, the pillar is a hollow column and encloses the rods which adjust the pitches, which are levered by pressing pedals at the base of the instrument.
Breaking with previous string-quartet practice, it incorporates a soprano vocal line. In turn, this led to being able to play chords. A description of how often the improvement results are measured when befreit strauss analysis essay this strategy. Befrsit this private France must bear. The colloquial name for a variety of the silver Xeraphin struck at from the figure of Befreit strauss analysis essay.
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