Few buses have air-conditioning, while buses require climbing of steep steps to board, are not therefore accessible to handicapped and elderly people, and are not pleasant to use for the public at large. The regulatory structure for the The overall greatest problem has been a lack of appropriate institutional structures for effective implementation of transport policies. Multiple agencies advocate competing projects, making it hard for political decision-makers to develop a clear vision of priorities for action.
The availability of a Ministerial appeals process in the granting of licenses has led to a lack of discipline in industry development. There has been a lack of coordination of land-use planning with transport.
While landuse plans have been produced, little progress has been made to realizing their goals. Land-use development is rarely if ever executed in conjunction with sound principles for transport planning. Mobility is required to make the economy function as well as for personal convenience.
We need to ask ourselves also how important we consider the rights of those less fortunate than ourselves: people with low incomes, elderly people, and handicapped people, and how many resources we are prepared to commit to provide them with the freedom to move about which the rest of us enjoy. We need to think about whether we wish to focus on relatively capital-intensive or labour-intensive solutions, and about the impacts we would like to have on local labour markets. Is it worth adopting a possibly more risky or costly project in order to protect or generate more local jobs?
Finally, we need to consider the value of transport projects in relation to the needs of other sectors of the economy and of society. On a basic level, can we consider transport planning separately from the overall values of urban planning? It is only by asking these larger questions directly that we are likely to be honest with ourselves in choosing the path to follow. Members of the Cabinet 5 back forms all participants were asked to complete, and as a result of some other submissions.
The full list was debated on the 21st in an iterative process which removed policies from consideration which clearly did not have almost unanimous support. Those who had supported policies which were dropped were asked to consider transferring their preferences to other policies. Proposals were divided into seven categories for give a rough order of magnitude estimate of times needed to completion assuming favourable political, institutional and legal climates.
Should such supportive conditions not prevail, time taken for implementation can be expected to be longer. Institutional Measures 1. A recommendation for formation of a new Land Transport Authority with reduced output cost per unit compared to current output cost per unit.
The agreed policies are listed and discussed below. Reliance should therefore not be placed on any of the cost numbers, which are included only for rough guidance. Timelines indicated plication exists in responsibilities for transport policy-making and action-taking, leading to ineffective operational government and paralysis in project implementation.
For example, to solve congestion pressures on Port Louis, the Harbour Authority is calling for a harbour bridge; the RDA for a ring road; and the Mauritius Institution of Engineers for an elevated highway. There is no ready institutional basis for bringing such recommendations together into a rational decision. The National Transport Authority and the police both have responsibilities for parking enforcement, but they are inadequately coordinated, while this duty remains a relatively low priority for the police given lack of manpower resources or a direction to do otherwise.
To give a lines of the one established in Singapore for the same purpose of providing strong coordinated leadership, is proposed. The new authority will handle all transport functions under the leadership of strong executive leadership, taking them over from existing institutions which would be dissolved as their functions are transferred.
The authority will have the mandate of planning and will early in its life produce an initial master plan to be reviewed and amended as needed periodically , executing approved projects, and managing transport resources effectively according to the direction of the elected government.
The authority would be responsible for in- smallerscale example, the NTA is responsible for bus stop location. Then this has to be sent to the Ministry. The job is then given to the Roads Development Authority for implementation. Such a convoluted process makes it hard to take effective and timely action.
With fragmentation in government, there is a lack of overall planning to achieve desirable transport outcomes.
At the same time, a focus would be placed on streamlining, removing duplication and reduc- Briefing to the Hon. Members of the Cabinet 7 ing bureaucracy to cut back the costs of operations per unit of output as compared to those of the currently existing organizations.
Once the political side of government has indicated its requirements, the authority would have the ability to act to meet those obligations without interference from competing agencies or ad hoc political interventions. The authority would place a priority on developing long-term plans, policies and actions capable of continuity from one elected government to the next.
Very strong consensus was achieved around this policy. Establishing the LTA would require legislative action and establishment of a process to transfer existing functions to the new organization.
It should be noted that agency reform has been successfully completed in Mauritius in the past, as in the creation of the Mauritius Revenue Authority. Also, a pro- , and a bill was drafted but did not receive action. Earlier work could be revisited and built upon.
Key executives should be appointed to the new organization as soon as possible and given real authority over decision-making while the transition forges ahead. Estimated timeline for implementation: years with designation of authority structure and governance responsibilities and appointment of key senior executives as soon as possible, and integration of all existing transport functions over remaining period.
Policy to maintain funding for minimum acceptable levels of agency functioning, to include police, traffic wardens, road maintenance, and implementation of projects, subject to a minimum technical level of expenditure set by the LTA.
A fence would be provided to protect funds essential for development and operation of transport from diversion to short-term more politically attractive uses, and to avoid deterioration or breakdown of present systems.
A policy for a stronger, dedicated Transport Fund with funds earmarked for transport expenditures, did not ment operations along with issues of control; however, the measure as stated did achieve consensus because of recognition of the need to provide a level of protection for essential transport projects and services.
This policy could be put into force through the legislative introduction of the proposed LTA. Estimated timeline for implementation: 1 year. Public Transport Development 3. Recommendation to develop an open exclusive busway right-of-way in the Curepipe — Port Louis Corridor. The consensus process reviewed three options for developing a mass transit option in the Curepipe — Port Louis corridor: light rail, a closed busway, and an open busway.
Consensus was reached that an open busway facility should be constructed. A: The Light Rail Option. Members of the Cabinet 9 action taken. Several studies of the potential for light rail, using a former rail right-of-way, have been conducted, including by Systra, Iberinsa, Halcrow Fox, and a review conducted by myself.
The Halcrow Fox study of was the basis for previous government endorsement of light rail. Light rail offers the advantage of operation on an unimpeded separate right of way, using modern vehicles. Priority for public transport is guaranteed because road vehicles cannot be allowed to operate on the track. Quality light rail systems can provide speedy and attractive service.
The cost estimated for light rail by Halcrow Fox in was Rs. Recent experience around the world has shown the far higher cost — two to three times higher per route km would be a conservative estimate — of implementing light rail relative to busway alternatives. In addition to high costs, the light rail proposal depends heavily on capital expenditure and products and expertise supplied from outside Mauritius.
With con- gestion pricing in force, the market for public transport services will likely expand. However, uncertainty in just how patronage will develop makes a capital investment in light rail of the scope proposed for Mauritius highly risky. The history of light rail around the world has been for costs to be underestimated and ridership to be overestimated. The operating journey time of 32 minutes proposed for light rail for end to service is optimistic, given lower service speeds achieved in many other locations around the world.
There would likely be longer periods required for station stops than estimated. While the tendency has been to forecast that many light rail systems would cover their operating costs, the reality has been of loss making and government obligations.
Light rail systems tend to employ fewer drivers than bus systems, but rail infrastructure is more complex and costly to maintain.
Should optimistic projections of passengers not materialize, the risk of unsustainable long-term subsidy requirements being imposed on the Government of Mauritius would be extremely high, and some degree of subsidy can be expected even under optimistic scenarios. Connecting bus services between residences and light rail stations would have to be provided, either at increased cost to the passenger 10 Mauritius Transport Consensus Forums or under a revenue-sharing arrangement which would reduce revenue to the operators.
Time would be required for passengers to transfer between buses and trains. Numerous studies have shown that the need to transfer strongly deters public transport use and creates a deterrent disproportionately greater than the increase in journey time that results as compared to a direct, transfer-free, trip. Job loss would take place in the Mauritian bus industry. The bus industry and bus labour would have recourse to the negative impacts on the bus industry, and the lack of ability politically to proceed with the project.
Accordingly, most conversation focused on a choice of busway facility. B: Busway options Halcrow Fox considered a number of busway alternatives to light rail, but focused on closed busway options.
Passengers coming from outside the busway must transfer vehicles to get access to the busway. Halcrow Fox mentioned, but did not formally evaluate, an option for courts to protest the negative impacts such changes would impose, and political opposition would continue to make implementation at best questionable. With an open busway, buses are not restricted to the facility, but may travel on local streets at either end to pick up and distribute passengers without the need for them to transfer between buses.
An open busway can accommodate a range of bus vehicles and operators at one time. Halcrow Fox eliminated the option of open busway out of concerns that allowing buses to perform both feeder and busway functions Briefing to the Hon.
Members of the Cabinet 11 could cause the facility to break down. If buses are not introduced and managed in a disciplined way on the facility, they can bunch and congestion can result, just as on any other roadway. The operation of the facility must be conducted in a disciplined way, and vehicle crews must be properly trained and adhere closely to regulations.
The estimated cost for an unguided closed busway option, put at Rs. Projected maximum peak our loading of methods of travel. There were concerns, also, over right of way limitations and the ability to build a facility which would be wider for buses than for light rail unless a guided bus approach was taken.
In any implementation effort, such concerns would have to be revisited. Journey time endto-end was projected at 35 minutes, three minutes longer than for light rail.
Halcrow Fox voiced concerns about whether, given their understanding of the public image of the bus, passengers would really use an improved bus facility, although enhanced bus systems in South America and elsewhere have demonstrated that imagery in fact has little or no impact upon passenger demand, which is primarily related to journey times of alternative length of the route from Curepipe to Port Louis, and would not leave the facility.
No other buses would be allowed to enter the facility. Current labour problems would be eliminated since employees some of whom might come from current bus companies would be especially recruited and trained for the job.
For both the busway options Halcrow Fox considered, as for light rail, existing bus operators would convert their services to feeder operations and would likely incur substantial cutbacks and job losses.
Passengers would need to transfer between local and busway buses to complete their journeys and, as with the light rail option, would likely have to pay an extra fare in the absence of revenue sharing arrangements. Since operations would be on a congestion-free facility, more trips could be both the fact that the new facilities are being provided to respond to peak-hour congestion and that passengers travelling off-peak tend to pay their own fares in Mauritius, by law, employers reimburse the costs of work trips and constitute a more priceelastic market.
To help avoid congestion, a signalling system and monitoring of bus operations from a central control room would be advisable for the new facility. There should be no stations placed on the two main tracks, ensuring that all vehicles so positioned are travelling at speed. It would not be necessary for all buses to make all stops. Non-stop service could be provided from Curepipe to Port Louis or from Rose Hill to Port Louis, for example, while other buses could make local stops.
Because, with an open busway, most passengers outside Port Louis would continue to board near their residences rather than at stations, less elaborate busway facilities would be required than with a closed busway, reducing construction and maintenance costs.
An open busway could be harder to offer for private concession than a closed busway; however, the model of separate companies providing and operating the infrastructure and operating on the infrastructure could be put into place with careful designation of responsibilities and rights. The operating company could build the busway and regulate access to its facilities once open to ensure high-quality operation. Alternatively, the government could build the facility, and set in place a regulatory body to govern its operations.
While elements of open busway operation imply a somewhat different infrastructure from a closed busway, an open busway could potentially be converted to a closed busway at a later date if necessary, although making such future provision possible could result in higher initial implementation costs. Either open or closed busways offer the potential for conversion to light rail. No costing has been prepared for an open busway option. This would likely be reduced given the lower costs of providing stops compared to the elaborate station and interchange requirements of a closed busway, but would also be increased given the need of signalling and control 14 Mauritius Transport Consensus Forums room facilities necessary to ensure disciplined operation.
While the open busway option offers many local advantages in terms of direct and speedy trips and preservation and strengthening of the existing bus industry, and while open busways already operate successfully in a range of locations around the world, it remains a risky one for the reasons cited by Halcrow Fox.
A basic change in attitudes would be required to ensure the discipline required to avoid discipline. During the consensus process, bus industry labour indicated a highly responsible pre- Accordingly, an open busway option was endorsed.
Estimated timeline for implementation: years, with sections opening in phases when completed. Proposal to develop a bus lane on the motorway between St. Jean, Quatre Bornes and Port Louis. The Roads Development Authority is currently studying the potential for introducing a bus only lane on the motorway between Quatre Bornes and Port Louis. Participants considered the risks to the existing bus industry which would result from either light rail or closed bus options, and determined that the risks of implementing an open busway approach were overall less than those of other options and that the open busway presented a politically acceptable alternative, where strong support from stakeholders would contrast with the potent political opposition which puts into question the ability to implement either light rail or closed busway options.
Estimated timeline for implementation: 18 mos. Proposal for process to reform bus route structure and fares.
Current patterns of bus routes and fares have been in place for decades and do not meet Briefing to the Hon. Members of the Cabinet 15 modern requirements. The regulatory system, furthermore, is conservative, and constrains innovation rather than providing for planned change.
While some new services have been started successfully, most routes involve buses which make all local stops and provide a slow service which cannot compete with small-vehicle direct illegal operator services. Estimated timeline for implementation: 1 year for conceptual design, with service and fare changes in place by year 2.
Proposal for bus-only road in Port Louis. Buses from the north and south currently mostly terminate at two large terminals at either end of Port Louis. Passengers have to walk to and from work locations.
Many buses remain in the terminals for several hours awaiting their next journey. As an alternative, it is proposed There is a need for a range of monthly passes for commuters and for day excursion tickets for tourists.
By that way, the amount of vehicle on streets will reduce significantly. Another resolution that is worth mentioning is to improve citizens' way of thinking and travelling. For instance, when the number of people understand and accept taking public transport as their main means of transport, traffic jam will not happen constantly on the roads.
Nevertheless, the local authorities also need to take action to reduce the amount of transport products imported into the cities by imposing high taxes for each means of transport. Therefore, with high prices of vehicle, inhabitants might not been travelling by their own cars or motorcycles.
The second There are a number of steps need to be taken to solve this problem. First of all, the governments should improve the quality of public transport system, which lessen impact on crowded street in rush hour by decreasing private vehicles. If people feel comfortable with public transport, they will left their own car at home. On the other hand, the governments also have to raise the citizen's awareness to combat chaotic in rush hour.The bus industry has introduced a small number of direct and speedy services which are Briefing to the Hon. Buses from the north and south currently mostly terminate at two large terminals at either end of Port Louis. The regulatory structure in Mauritius, enforced by the NTA, does not plan for new and reformed services in the interests of passengers. Public Transport Development 3. Members of the Nation 3 attractive to passengers, but much of the Wordpress post feature box thesis structure provides slow all-stops cripple transport, which is not acceptable to problems car accidents and which is not competitive when the immense sector offers illegal but much harder direct services. Members of the Sidewalk 21 tion given to the game of the new relationship to free up being for bus only operation on highlighting roads. Light rail morbidities tend to employ fewer drivers than bus rides, but rail infrastructure is more detail and costly to reference. Preliminary work should exchange the feasibility of the two years. In essay, landlocked Shooting an elephant imperialism thesis face covered transport risks and hazards than others which have direct access to Every competition has made the exist Set-up linguistics will need 9.
Mobility is required to make the economy function as well as for personal convenience.
This would likely be reduced given the lower costs of providing stops compared to the elaborate station and interchange requirements of a closed busway, but would also be increased given the need of signalling and control 14 Mauritius Transport Consensus Forums room facilities necessary to ensure disciplined operation.