The more one tries to examine and maybe get beyond these dominant narratives, as we should next year and as the centenary rolls on, the more a bit of the counterfactual may help the process. It would have been grim, repressive and unpredictable in many ways. These factors meant that the situation in Europe in was very tense. World War I occurred from to For much of the 19th century, Russia wanted to take control of the Dardanelles, the area where the Black Sea opened out into the Mediterranean Sea.
World War I occurred from to The highest priority for Britain was protecting the trade routes between Britain and India. Numerous nations were involved in this war, and two examples of opposing forces are Germany and Russia.
The most significant and immediate causes of this catastrophe was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie. Russia mobilised its army ready to help the Serbs against Austria-Hungary. When that hope is balked, when the Armistice does not deliver eternal peace and self-balancing security, many Americans blame themselves: If the external world is recalcitrant, America must have provoked it. To start with, other European countries had rival empires. Europe would have been different if Germany had won in As a consequence, the rise of Hitler would have been much less likely.
The downside was that if the powers stuck blindly to their alliances, then a small-scale local dispute involving one power might drag the other powers in and turn into a major war. For much of the 19th century, Russia wanted to take control of the Dardanelles, the area where the Black Sea opened out into the Mediterranean Sea. A battle against genocide that ended with the indiscriminate atomic bombing of two Japanese cities? The strong economy, large population and powerful armed forces of Germany seemed to be capable of dominating Europe. And although his essay suffers from the fact that the Eurosceptic Ferguson is over-eager to portray the kaiser as the godfather of the later European Union, his account of the cabinet debates of is fascinating because Herbert Asquith's Liberal government could so easily have decided to stay out of the war — and very nearly did.
This in turn allowed one crisis to spiral out of control and spark off a war that killed millions. If Germany's Jews had survived, Zionism might not have had the international moral force that it rightly claimed after Hitler's defeat. The problem was that the Dardanelles were owned by Turkey. And what might 20th-century Europe have been like if it had? Britain was much less committed to this alliance than Russia or France.
The first four causations were more of a build-up to it. This would then free most German troops to fight Russia in the east.
Other historians have confessed to being more intrigued. Obviously, it would have been dominated and shaped by Germany. In the kaiser's Europe, defeated France would be the more likely seedbed for fascism, not Germany. When that hope is balked, when the Armistice does not deliver eternal peace and self-balancing security, many Americans blame themselves: If the external world is recalcitrant, America must have provoked it.
But what were the causes of this war? Tsarist Russia certainly was not. This can be compared to pouring gasoline on the ground and then lighting it on fire. There are many causes of World War I, both immediate and underlying causes.
Soon afterwards, Germany's most powerful soldier, General Schlieffen, drew up a plan that would allow Germany to beat France very quickly in any future war. At the time, says MacMillan, people on all sides thought they had a just cause. The British government made much of their duty to protect Belgium. Until the early s, Britain was more concerned about Russia and France than Germany. The immediate cause of Who Did It?
It would have been grim, repressive and unpredictable in many ways. This would allow Russian warships and trading ships to sail easily around Europe. Self-accusation is as American as self-assertion—and as based on illusions.
If nothing else, that is worth some reflection. The downside was that if the powers stuck blindly to their alliances, then a small-scale local dispute involving one power might drag the other powers in and turn into a major war. As long ago as , the film It Happened Here by Kevin Brownlow and Andrew Mollo raised the then unthinkable thought that collaboration would have thrived in Hitler's Britain. A national social crisis has a portion in causing fascism to grow powerful. Germany leads Europe today by consent, not coercion. Such understanding will protect Americans from the dangerous illusions that such polemics inculcated in the s, after Vietnam, and now once more again.
A fight for freedom that left half of Europe under communist rule? Russia had other ports in the north, but these tended to freeze over in winter.