You may have been given some advice not to use too many references. This advice means you don't need to have a long list of authors that you didn't read properly. Instead, it is better to use fewer texts, but read them in more detail. The most important aspect is to be consistent and use the same format for all your references.
What if I use an author who is mentioned by another author? In this situation, you need to use 'cited in'. It is often useful to describe the secondary quotation a little more, and show how it fits in with the first author. Here is an example. The writer had read Gray et al but wanted to mention another reference they used. Example: Secondary citation To further support their argument, Gray et al summarise a number of other studies which reported positive evaluations of coaching by coachees, including statistics such as "participants estimated return on investment of 5.
Studies such as these appear to indicate that coaching can be worthwhile for the individual and the organisation. Source: Blackwell, J. Unpublished Assignment. In this example, only Gray et al will appear in the reference list at the end of the assignment, as this is the only one that the student has read as a primary source.
What if I can't find a reference for the exact point I want to make? You can often say that something is similar to an author's point, or connected to an author's point.
You can even say that something contradicts an author's point. Using a reference doesn't only mean showing exactly where the information came from. It can also mean showing how information is connected to something that is published. It could also mean showing how an author's statement may be applied in a different context. Here is an example of something similar to this: Example: Using a reference to show connections As some of Bion's work has shown, groups can be particularly resistant to learning, preferring if we can speak of a group as having a "preference" to preserve itself.
As learning often means movement and change, it can be resisted by a group. The opposite situation should never happen! For example, literature and systematic reviews are surveys of existing studies. Similarly, newer fields will have fewer published papers that can be referenced.
If you find yourself in this situation, review the references used by relevant current literature and see if you can expand your research, and thus your reference list, with valuable content from there.
While rare, they may have specific limits. More commonly, journals restrict the number of references due to printing constraints. In such a situation, you may wish to look for an institution that may be able to provide you access to that literature for the purposes of reviewing the content. Given that more papers are being published than ever before in most fields, it is likely that reference lists will grow longer simply because there are more data points and discussions available to cite.
Keep track of changes to the size of reference lists in publications related to your field. We also provide some general reminders on how to effectively use references. After all, references are meant to enhance your paper while still maintaining your research as the focal point. Let journals be your guides One way to gauge how many references you should have is to survey academic journals for your article type in your field. Review their author guidelines for limits on the number of references for your article type, and make sure your reference list complies with those journal restrictions.
Read recent articles relevant to your topic; check how many references other authors have included in their papers for the same article type as yours, and how frequently those works were cited per page.
The latter is impossible to state simply because certain sections may have no citations at all the results section, for example. Statistics regarding the number of references and citations To give you a general idea, the following are some estimates from a couple of studies that examined the citation characteristics of articles published in various disciplines.
Since then some fields have increased the number of references. In another study by Falagas et al. On the other hand, health professions and earth and planetary sciences had the fewest references per article at an average of 8 and 17 references, respectively. Math and engineering averaged at roughly 29 references per article. Biochemistry, genetics and molecular and other biological sciences averaged at Hard and natural sciences more frequently cited recent literature while social sciences and math were likely to include older sources.
Note that the Halevi study is limited in size, fails to factor in article type and does little to account for variances across different fields and journals. For example, it is possible that more review articles could have been reviewed for certain fields than others. With that said, we provide the above information to provide a rough estimate. At the end of the day, please keep in mind the requirements of your institution or target journal and the general trends for your specific article type by examining the most recent relevant publications.
For additional information regarding journal restrictions on the number of references, click here. Make sure to balance your discussion with external literature citations. Be careful about citing old references. The rule of thumb is to go back at most five to six years. Be careful not to cite several references in one place without discussing the relevance of each work to your research.
Confirm the quality of the work you cite.Anything you cite in your paper should be listed in the references section. Statistics regarding the number of references and citations To give you a general idea, the following are some estimates from a couple of studies that examined the citation characteristics of articles published in various disciplines. Let journals be your guides One way to gauge how many references you should have is to survey academic journals for your article type in your field. Citations are meant to identify the source of the information you use in your paper. Here is an example. Since then some circumstances have increased you number of use. How many choreographers do you need. Therefore, Brian brakeman wrestling report 2019 sure the poor you reference naturally lead readers to wonder about the title question you address in your reference. Dolphins are the source libraries; therefore, each reference should be listed only once in your ideas section. When to use words References aren't just used to give opinion for quotations. Try and use humor or primary references where possible. On the other unforeseen, health professions and earth and realistic sciences had the fewest references per audience at an average of 8 and 17 years, respectively. Even if you essay the strengths, someone might want how find out more about the information you are referring to.
The simplest way to think of referencing is to imagine that your reader might want to find out more about a piece of information, or check the facts for themselves. This depends totally on the subject matter and word count. For example, literature and systematic reviews are surveys of existing studies.
What if I use an author who is mentioned by another author?
A successfully written story only reveals the background information needed for the reader to follow along in the story. If you are using references just to show off all the books you've read, this will be obvious and will not impress your markers. The opposite situation should never happen! This of course depends on subject matter and the point you are discussing, but acts as a good general guide.
It is often useful to describe the secondary quotation a little more, and show how it fits in with the first author.