Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote. See how it fits in the body of the text? When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper.
Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. The paragraph on Everest is taken from a research paper submitted by Alexandra Ferber, grade 9. This paragraph may not be reproduced without permission. At Oxbridge Essays, we know a thing or two about how to use footnotes. And if you have an essay you need a little help with, we can provide full referencing in your chosen style, so get in touch for help.
Essay writing and using footnotes: finding it a challenge? Even with all the advice in the world, essay writing, using footnotes and correctly referencing your essay can still be extremely challenging for some.
It can often be hard simply to know where to begin, or some students become overwhelmed mid-way through the writing process. Wherever you are with your essay writing, if you're struggling and need help, you've come to the right place. Sometimes this information will come in the form of citations, but sometimes it will simply present additional notes about the topic at hand. These citations and explanations are called footnotes because they appear in the footer of the page. Take a look at the example below to see where footnotes appear on a page: What Are Footnotes?
Long explanatory notes can be difficult for readers to trudge through when they occur in the middle of a paper.
Providing this information is necessary, but doing so in the main text can disrupt the flow of the writing. Imagine if every time an author wanted to provide a citation, the entire citation had to be written out at the end of the sentence, like this Anthony Grafton, The Footnote: A Curious History [Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ] Books would become much longer and reading much more tedious.
That's why footnotes are so useful: they allow authors to provide the required information without disrupting the flow of ideas. Footnotes can include anything from a citation to parenthetical information, outside sources, copyright permissions, background information, and anything in between, though certain style guides restrict when footnotes can be used.
We'll get into that soon! Footnotes vs. Endnotes Authors can also use endnotes to avoid disrupting their writing with extraneous information.The paragraph on Everest is taken from a research paper submitted by Alexandra Ferber, grade 9. Footnotes and different referencing styles Using the Harvard system , which is the predominant form of referencing at universities in the UK, sources are cited in short, parenthetical notes within the text. When to Use Footnotes and Endnotes The main uses of footnotes and endnotes are as follows: To add a footnote citation in referencing systems such as MHRA and Chicago , with full source information also given in a bibliography at the end of the document. Using footnotes for additional information Even if you are not required to use footnotes because of your designated citation style, you might choose to include footnotes to provide the reader with supplementary information that could be useful but is not critical to the understanding of the interpretation presented.
If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! In the References tab, there is a Footnotes group. When a footnote must be placed at the end of a clause,1 add the number after the comma.
Final Tips and Tricks To avoid cluttering the page, you should use footnotes sparingly and only to provide helpful additions or citations. In that group, click the button that says Insert Footnote. The bibliography page is the last section of your essay or dissertation and includes the full citation information for any source cited or referenced through the course of your work. If you do need to reduce the word count in an essay, you have other options , such as rewriting wordy sentences or cutting repetition.
A footnote might only include the title of the source. As such, if you move vital evidence or analysis to a footnote, the person marking your work may ignore it. Final Tips and Tricks To avoid cluttering the page, you should use footnotes sparingly and only to provide helpful additions or citations. In the References tab, there is a Footnotes group. Published June 7, Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper.
Modern Language Association MLA While MLA style discourages the use of long footnotes or endnotes, the style guide does permit their use for directing readers to other pertinent information on a relevant subject. Final Tips and Tricks To avoid cluttering the page, you should use footnotes sparingly and only to provide helpful additions or citations. If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention. But what should you include in footnotes and endnotes? One name came from the north side of the mountain, from the Tibetans, who had named it Joloungma, or "Goddess, Mother of the World.
Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. Whether an author should use the author—date system or footnotes is often decided by the author's professor, journal, or publisher. However, footnotes are occasionally employed in other style guides as well.