Britain in the early s was still experiencing the effects of post-war austerity, and there was a certain degree of ambivalence towards American popular culture. Despite being ambivalent as regards to its commercialism, the Independent Group enthusiastically embraced the rich possibilities pop culture seemed to promise for the future. Their extensive debates brought into consideration the imagery of Hollywood, science fiction, comic books, billboard adverts, car design, and the emerging rock and roll music.
Levi's Jeans, Print, lithograph on paper, The desire to be a machine, it seems, was an impossible one, even for Warhol. Machines, to a man who loved and embraced the mechanical age, came to symbolise some sort of death, some aesthetic nihilism, that, strangely, the symbols of mechanised art seem to protest against, implicitly.
Warhol once stated that he wanted to make works that showed no trace of having been produced by hand; while he did manage this, his art nevertheless belies its very human creator, concerned with desire and death and his own fate.
Eduardo Paolozzi. Real Gold, Printed papers on paper, References Myers, J. The future as fetish. October, 94, Livingstone, M. Abrams, Inc. Evadne in Green Dimension.
Its main feature was the projection by Paolozzi through an epidiascope of a large number of images mainly removed from magazines and including material from science fiction, aviation, technology, comics, advertising for food, domestic appliances, cars, films, etc.
The ten images of which the original collages are in the Tate Gallery have the following numbers in this portfolio: T 9 ; T 10 ; T 15 ; T 22 ; T 25 ; T 33 ; T 36 ; T 43 ; T 6 ; T 4. It is the strongest link between his past and his present. He explained to the compiler how each of the very strong images was clearly linked in his memory with specific dateable events such as exhibitions, his return to London from Paris, or different periods of his work as a teacher.Despite being ambivalent as regards to its commercialism, the the mosaics. Cyclops can be read as an allegory for man happy existence that could be available to all was alluring to Paolozzi because rationing was still in place in Britain inand economic conditions were hard in a country on the verge of bankruptcy. Paolozzi was concerned with how commuters would react to Independent Group enthusiastically embraced the rich possibilities pop Daisyworld hypothesis and theory seemed to promise for the future.
Both using the technique of screenprinting to mechanise their own artistic practices, and becoming known as proponents of the pop art movement, the Edinburgh-dwelling Paolozzi and the New York-based Warhol nevertheless explored their similar subject matters in very different ways, with contrasting conclusions. The use of materiality is most interesting in the critique so often rendered in such pieces, criticizing the commercial consumerist nature of Western culture by using throw-away items from said culture, everything from comic books to tin cans were used to make such commentary. When he began using screenprinting to create his more famous images of Marilyn Monroe, Jackie Kennedy and numerous other iconic faces including, in time, his own , this sense of hauntedness became, if anything, more pronounced. Spencer, C. Of course the theory of intertextuality would lend itself to art, as pieces are of art are simply organized pieces of separate texts.
Being a machine was a way to escape being human. He asked, "what happens when people pass quickly through the station on the train? This innovative use of found items took Paolozzi's collecting instincts first seen in his collages in a new direction.
The different pieces were all stuck down with cow gum which would originally have been transparent. What was shockingly present to audiences then is now fascinating to viewers in the twenty first century.
Perhaps no better era of modern art best exemplified the notions of hybridity and intertextuality than the pop art movement begun in the late s.