Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well. Short versus Long Quotations Remember, what you write in essays should be primarily your own words; your instructors want to know what your ideas are and for you to demonstrate your own critical thinking. This means you should only use the ideas of experts in the form of quotes to support your ideas. A paper that consists of mostly quotes pieced together does not demonstrate original thought but rather that you are good at cutting and pasting.
Therefore, you should strive to state your ideas, develop them thoroughly, and then insert a supporting quote, and only if necessary.
Focus on paraphrasing and integrating and blending those external sources into your own ideas giving the original author credit by using a citation, of course. When deciding to use any quotation as opposed to paraphrasing, you need to make sure the quote is a statement that the original author has worded so beautifully it would be less effective if you changed it into your own words. When you find something you would like to include verbatim word for word from a source, you need to decide if you should include the whole paragraph or section, or a smaller part.
Sometimes, you may choose to use a longer quote but remove any unnecessary words. You would then use ellipses to show what content you have removed. The following examples show how this is done. Short Quotations A short quote can be as one word or a phrase or a complete sentence as long as three lines of text again, removing any unnecessary words.
Generally, a short quotation is one that is fewer than 40 words. Whether you use a complete sentence or only part of one, you need to make sure it blends in perfectly with your own sentence or paragraph. For example, if your paragraph is written in the present tense but the quote is in the past, you will need to change the verb, so it will fit into your writing.
You will read about on this shortly. Using an attributive tag is another way to help incorporate your quote more fluidly. An attributive tag is a phrase that shows your reader you got the information from a source, and you are giving the author attribution or credit for his or her ideas or words. Using an attributive tag allows you to provide a citation at the same time as helping integrate the quote more smoothly into your work. In the example above, the attributive tag with citation is underlined; this statement is giving Marshall credit for his own words and ideas.
If you were to include only a portion of that sentence, perhaps excerpting from the middle of it, you would not start the quote with a capital. In this example, notice how the student has only used a portion of the sentence, so did not need to include the capital.
Formatting Short Quotations For short quotations, use quotation marks to indicate where the quoted material begins and ends, and cite the name of the author s , the year of publication, and the page number where the quotation appears in your source. Remember to include commas to separate elements within the parenthetical citation.
Also, avoid redundancy. According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al.
Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6.
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.
Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek.
Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd.
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog.
Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.
Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky.
Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Citing non-print or sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. How to quote a quote Using a quote in your paper is pretty straightforward; quoting a quote, however, requires a little more attention to detail.
Firstly, you will need to determine the part of the secondary source that you wish to quote. For explanation purposes, the secondary source is the work that uses the quote that you wish to include in your paper — this is also referred to as an indirect quote. Whenever you endeavor to call upon only a portion of the writing from the secondary source, it is best to utilize the most relevant segment that creates a strong comment about the quote being used indirectly.
It is in good practice to remember to properly introduce the secondary source, prior to using the quote. For example, you might choose to write: According to Myles McLeish, author of A journey through the psyche of the broken man. Secondary quotes are identified differently than standard passages. When following APA citation guidelines, you will include the publication year after the name of the writer.
The page number will come after the quote. Under the MLA citation guidelines, you will add the page number after the name of the author. Do not forget to include the entry into your reference list. In the event that you are using indirect quotes, you need only to list the secondary source on your reference list. For example, under MLA Modern Language Association citation style, you will cite the full name of the writer and also the page number every time you include a quote in your essay.
If you were instead using APA style, you would also have to include the year that the quote was written — in the body of the essay — and again in the corresponding reference page. Citing shorter quotes: Adhering to MLA style guidelines, a short quote is defined as anything that is smaller in length four typed lines.
If the quote you are incorporating into your work meets that requirement, you will a. It is acceptable to input the name of the author either before the quote, or in parentheses at the conclusion of the quote. The page number will be written at the end, there is no need to use anything to signify that it is a page number. You can also use your introduction to introduce the author in place of using their name in parentheses at the end.
Another option is to introduce the quote, input your citation, and then add commentary.In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears three exact words from your source, you must put them in quotation marks its respective entry on the Works Cited page. I Final report of the digital opportunity initiative to sob, because I was responsible for him, I quote, and should he die or become lost or eaten by a large, golden textbook with jade eyes, it would be my fault and the guilt would drown me and cause me to shrivel. Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth.
For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples: According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" Foulkes , though others disagree. Review following the examples of different ways to cite direct quotations. Long Block Quotations Long quotations should be used even more sparingly than shorter ones. Always integrate the quoted material into your own sentence. Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well.
If you believe you have found the perfect paragraph to support your ideas, and you decide you really want or need to use the long quote, see if you can shorten it by removing unnecessary words or complete sentences and put ellipses in their place. To put it lightly, incorporating the right quotes into your work will not only bolster your argument, but it will also better convince the reader to adopt your point of view. Deadline is pressing? These are valid reasons to use quotations. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. A quote that is entirely unrelated to your topic with only serve as a distraction, and might potentially confuse your readers.
Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. Use an attributive tag e. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. You may want to consider the following, which is by no means a complete description of either the elements of style or their definitions. While it is true that there are many ways to write an introductory paragraph, there will be times where it will make sense to start a paper with a quotation.
For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. Check with your instructor about his or her preferences. Include the page number in the parenthetical citation. It's right under your nose. University of California Press,
Bronte 78 Adding or removing words: In a paper written about the history of urban legends, J. Before or after the quote, connect it to your argument using your own words: eg. If the quote you are incorporating into your work meets that requirement, you will a. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. University of California Press, Jorge interviewed a dietitian as part of his research, and he decided to quote her words in his paper.