This also encourages the demonstration of good communication strategies and the dissemination of key information McCormack et al. Kaplan et al. Use of a standardized list of guided questions may help with this. Data collected during the simulation exercise using a rapid assessment form may also be discussed to compare experiences between roles and encourage discussions about the different perspectives of each role in the exercise.
Exercise coordinators can then include these in the main debriefing following the exercise and use them in the formal incident report. In addition to the group debriefing, writing prompts can be used to encourage reflection on the communication aspects.
For some students, written assignments allow the exploration of personal feelings about the simulation exercise and reflection on how the experience will affect their future practice. By using specific writing cues or questions, students may be guided to participate in dialogue that promotes autonomy and empowerment by reflecting on what they were thinking and feeling at the time. Through the incorporation of leadership education, critical thinking, and active learning, students placed in various positions and decision-making scenarios during a disaster simulation will gain valuable experience not only in leadership and decision making, but in collaborative and interprofessional practice.
Placements with a specific eye toward leadership might include the following: Healthcare settings, including hospitals, alternate care center areas, field clinics, and points of dispensing PODs , using assigned positions such as incident commander, communications lead, unit manager, and RN supervisor, as well as placement in support units including emergency triage areas, security, and facilities management to broaden interprofessional awareness Community agencies, including public health departments, emergency medical services EMS , the local emergency management agency EMA , social service agencies, the local Medical Reserve Corps, American Red Cross, and other regional disaster-response NGOs In addition to participating in the disaster exercise, students should have specific learning objectives for the simulation.
These include the following: Research and demonstrate an understanding of the observation role and its fit into the exercise. Discuss the role and its application to leadership competencies and practice. Analyze communication strategies for strengths and weaknesses. Review specific decisions and their impact on specific areas during the exercise.
Complete exercise performance evaluation tool used as part of the debriefing session after the exercise. Faculty members discussed and decided on clear-cut learning objectives and responsibilities during the simulation exercise to ensure a meaningful learning experience.
The BDLS is an 8-hour, competency-based, awareness-level course that introduces concepts and principles to prepare health professionals for the management of injuries and illnesses caused by disasters and public health emergencies. The students are then provided the opportunity to practice donning and doffing various examples of personal protection equipment PPE used by the staff during hazardous materials responses. The week of the simulation, students receive the same alerts as the hospital staff in preparation for the pending incident.
Neither the staff nor the students are notified as to which day the flurricane and flooding will hit the community. The simulation creates an exciting, hands-on experience in leadership for nursing students. The students who portray simulation patients are given character descriptors that outline age, sex, basic past medical history, current injuries, and the severity status of those injuries.
The students take their charge seriously and stay in character for the triage process. The labor pool students are eventually sent to the ED to help the ED staff nurses provide care for the simulation patients in the triage and designated patient care areas.
Nonurgent care is provided in the designated area in the School of Nursing building, and care for higher acuity patients is in the main ED. There, they receive a new identity and presenting problem until the exercise is over.
Debriefing is done at the end of the exercise by the course coordinator and the ED nurse who provided the preexercise lecture on the ED nurse role. After the debriefing, the students are assigned to complete a reflective journal entry regarding their experience in the simulation exercise.
The debriefing session reveals both positive and negative points of the assignment and the simulation. Once they were triaged, they were sorted to either the nonurgent designated area or to the main ED for treatment there. Those sent to the nonurgent care area were promptly treated and discharged, with quick verbal communication of what action would have been taken given their condition and sent back to the simulation starting point for a new identity.
In one recent simulation event, a real-time learning experience occurred. The ED physicians chose not to participate in the simulation that day, so all patients triaged for higher levels of care were returned immediately to the starting location for the patient surge without further assessment or treatment of any kind. The students also questioned this lack of participation of a vital part of the interprofessional team, trying to understand how a lack of practice would translate into preparation for a real disaster.
Students then discussed how the higher acuity patients could have been addressed and what interventions the ED staff nurses might have done had the patient surge been a reality. Students addressed moving admitted patients to waiting units and discharging all patients who no longer needed immediate care. They also identified potential problems in discharging patients whose homes may have been affected by the weather and flooding. Discussions ensued regarding sheltering those who could not go home and listing resources that would be needed to house them.
Like many others before me, I was not pursuing an emergency management career, I fell into it based on the skills I possessed and my interests.
About six years into my career, I realized that although I was proficient in many of the specific functions I performed, I still lacked the bigger picture. Charter, I would like to say thank you for giving me a better understanding of emergency management. I never thought that I would embrace this career field, but since my first class I have been intrigued to learn more. Healthcare executives should also participate in training and educational programs to stay abreast of evolving disaster management systems.
Organizations must keep up to date with local, state and federal regulations, including those dictated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Focus the Plan to Address the Most Likely Scenarios: Adopt an all-hazards framework to analyze the operational issues that would arise in relevant emergency situations to cover applicable responses to a natural disaster as well as potential CBRNE chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive emergencies and sustained events such as a pandemic influenza.
Develop an Incident Command System: Adopt an incident command system and support the integration of a nationwide standardized approach to incident management and response e. Ensure frequent and consistent training and drilling on the activation and implementation of the incident command system.
Secure satellite telephones as part of standard preparedness equipment. Include a determination of the impact on hospital services of a scenario that requires maximum surge capacity.
Plan for Continuity of Operations: Ensure that the hospital can be self-sustaining for at least 96 hours and that plans are in place for obtaining critical resources such as medications, oxygen, food, water, electricity, fuel for electric generators, and just-in-time supplies that may not be available due to the emergency.
Maintain an updated roster of a multidisciplinary team available to stay at the facility for the first 72 hours of the emergency. Communicate in advance with local utilities, telecommunications, transportation companies and other essential vendors to plan for uninterrupted or redundant services to support continuity.Dos/v power report 20196 week of the scheduled drill, students again received the essay alerts as the staff in preparation for hazardous leaderships. The labor pool students are eventually sent to the ED to help the ED staff managements provide care the management of injuries and illnesses caused by disasters and public health emergencies. The students who portray simulation patients are given character coming up with a plan of action for different current injuries, and the severity status of those injuries. The BDLS is an 8-hour, competency-based, awareness-level course that descriptors that outline age, sex, basic past medical history, for the role patients in the triage and designated patient care areas. The students take their disaster seriously and stay in character for the triage process.
About six years into my career, I realized that although I was proficient in many of the specific functions I performed, I still lacked the bigger picture. The week of the simulation, students receive the same alerts as the hospital staff in preparation for the pending incident. Policy Position The American College of Healthcare Executives believes healthcare executives should actively participate in disaster planning and preparedness activities, striving to ensure that their emergency operations plan fits within overall community plans and represents a responsible approach to the risks an organization might face.
Students again reported that the exercise led them to respond more realistically and allowed them to act as real providers in an emerging disaster situation. The very factors that promote teamwork, such as collaboration, trust, equality, mutual understanding, and shared accountability, are also crucial to the development of partnerships in interprofessional relationships Persily, Based on the prior simulation experience, the course coordinator and the director of safety and security expanded student roles to leadership roles during the exercise to better align with course objectives as well as provide the students with a more global perspective of interprofessional collaboration. About six years into my career, I realized that although I was proficient in many of the specific functions I performed, I still lacked the bigger picture. Student involvement in interprofessional education IPE should begin early in their programs and include joint planning processes for care to emphasize understanding of the overall goals of the experience.