There is also not a word about the enormous time commitments students are perfectly free to engage in should they wish to partake in their college's rowing club. Seemingly, graduate study is too rigorous to allow students to be employed outside the university, but just rigorous enough to allow them to work for the university itself or spend hours training for competitive sporting events that enhance its reputation.
Oxford, for me, has been an almost total contradiction of people and policies. I was and remain touched by the kindness and generosity of the staff and academics of the faculty of history, who went to great lengths to answer my questions and secure a place for me. Yet within the colleges and among the university's managerial hierarchy there remains an undertone of elitism, privilege and exclusivity.
The policy I am challenging strikes at the very essence of this: "Unless you can afford to partake in our customs and conventions, you are not welcome here. We shall soon discover whether it is unlawful. One of the best known politicians of his time, George Thomas impressed his 37 personality on the public in a slightly unorthodox way. Never quite a performer in the premier political league, he achieved star quality only after he had hung up his player's boots.
It was as a result of sitting in the Speaker's chair in the Commons that he became a national figure. But it had been a close-run thing The lowest point of Thomas's career occurred when he found himself excluded from the Government that Harold Wilson formed in March His first political speech was delivered when he was only 18 to the Women's Co-op Guild of Tonypandy, and in he led a hunger march from that town to Cardiff Before coming to the Speakership, he was a firmly committed leftwinger, noted for a natural exuberance and Welsh hwyl.
Few people in the South Wales of the s owned the freehold of their homes, a legacy of 19th-century industrial development and the cause of widespread anxiety. Thomas made the campaign for leasehold reform his own. It lasted 15 years, until the Labour Government's Leasehold Enfranchisement Act of , and at one time he took a stall in Cardiff market to publicise the cause.
Of even longer duration was his career as a Methodist lay preacher. This took him to almost every town in Wales and sometimes to the United States. In he attained the highest office open to a laymen of his denomination when he became vice-president of the Methodist Conference, the first MP to hold that office.
His eventual coat of arms incorporated an open Bible in addition to a miner's lamp, a leek and the Westminster portcullis. In he became Secretary of State for Wales and thus for two years sat in a British Cabinet, albeit as a very junior member regarded as part of the Prime Minister's "payroll vote"..
Thomas opposed devolution at a time when a number of Labour politicians with far flimsier Welsh credentials were jumping on the bandwagon. Along with Leo Abse, he was unhappy about Labour's support for an elected assembly.
Although a Welsh speaker himself, he regarded the stridency of Welsh language campaigners as a threat to the integrity of the United Kingdom. The Investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle in revealed him as the closet Conservative he had always essentially 38 been As he freely admitted: "It was a great day for me, without snobbery at all, to be riding in the coach with the Prince.
It turned out to be be the foundation of a friendship, with the Prince of Wales inviting him to read the lesson at his marriage service to Lady Diana Spencer at St Paul's Cathedral in July The boy from Rhondda had certainly come a long way. Weary of being chief Opposition spokesman for Welsh affairs when Labour was out of office, he had contemplated retirement from the Commons in It seems to have been only Harold Wilson's promise that he would assuredly be Secretary of State for Wales again in any future Labour government that kept him soldiering on.
But that, of course, made the shock all the greater when he was not given the post in March One of the most loquacious of politicians had been invited to become an impassive umpire. Nevertheless, over the next testing two years he furnished convincing proof of his suitability for the role of Speaker. He retired from the Speakership in , and was elevated to the House of Lords, not merely as a life peer but, at Margaret Thatcher's instigation, as the 1st Viscount Tonypandy Lord Tonypandy also held honorary fellowships and doctorates from several universities, at home and overseas Thomas's volume of memoirs, George Thomas, Mr Speaker, which appeared in On his 80th birthday, only four years later, the former Speaker drew warm tributes from some at least of those he had handled less than charitably in his book.
He wrote a second, much less controversial work, My Wales, in His last years were clouded by his battle against throat cancer, but he retained his powers virtually to the end, writing a particularly trenchant letter to The Times against rule from Brussels in In April he even appeared on a platform with Sir James Goldsmith in support of his Referendum Party and during last spring's election he had a prominent role in the video that the party produced and widely distributed.
He may have started life as a left-wing rebel, but his last vision of himself was certainly as an old-fashioned British patriot. On the 9th June, around a hundred guests gathered, at the Speaker's invitation, at her magnificent State Apartments in the Palace of Westminster to celebrate her new association with the College.
The Speaker gave a short speech of welcome, and the Principal replied, thanking her for her generous hospitality, and emphasising the long-standing connection between the College and political life. He also took the opportunity to thank Barbara Castle, who had helped to introduce the College to her colleague, for her support. He concluded by presenting the Speaker with a bouquet of flowers; there were flowers too for Edna Healey, who was soon to celebrate her birthday.
Betty Boothroyd has had a long and varied political career. She has also been a member of the European Parliament and has served as a delegate to the North Atlantic Assembly. But she is best known to the public for the firmness, tact and good humour which have characterised her Speakership.
She has a strong interest in education: she has been Chancellor of the Open University since , and has been granted honorary degrees by many universities, including both Oxford and Cambridge. Room Self-Introduction by New Fellows Richard P Brent Professor of Computing Science When two people communicate by conversation or in writing the problem of identification is solved by time-honoured means.
If the conversation is face to face the two people may know each other's appearance and voice. If they have never met before, they may be introduced by a common acquaintance, or they may produce passports or other trusted documents which show their photograph and signature. Increasingly we need to communicate electronically with people we have never met.
How can we be confident of their identities? If you get an electronic mail message from Tony. Blair Downing Street, how can you be sure it really came from Tony Blair and not from an impostor? If it really is from Tony Blair, how can you keep your reply confidential when it has to pass through many computer systems en route to Downing Street?
Perhaps of more immediate concern, how can you be confident that no one except you can persuade a cash dispensing machine to disgorge money from your bank account? Questions like these motivate my interest in topics such as digital signatures, secure communication protocols, and cryptography. Perhaps surprisingly, mathematics and in particular number theory can provide practical solutions. For example, it is easy to multiply two prime numbers to find their product.
Going in the other direction, from a product say to its prime factors 23 and 89 , is not generally so easy. New College finally sold the site to the rector of St Peter-le-Bailey in and as a site for a new church, now the college chapel.
He was concerned at the rising cost of education in the older universities in Britain, and projected St Peter's as a college where promising students, who might otherwise be deterred by the costs of college life, could obtain an Oxford education. In St Peter's Hall opened as a hostel with 13 residents.
With the granting of its royal charter in the same year, it took the name St Peter's College. The colours of the college are green and gold. In  William Laud , the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury , codified the university's statutes.
These, to a large extent, remained its governing regulations until the midth century. Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the University Press , and he made significant contributions to the Bodleian Library , the main library of the university. From the beginnings of the Church of England as the established church until , membership of the church was a requirement to receive the BA degree from the university and " dissenters " were only permitted to receive the MA in Wadham College , founded in , was the undergraduate college of Sir Christopher Wren.
Wren was part of a brilliant group of experimental scientists at Oxford in the s, the Oxford Philosophical Club , which included Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke. This group held regular meetings at Wadham under the guidance of the College's Warden, John Wilkins , and the group formed the nucleus that went on to found the Royal Society.
Students[ edit ] Before reforms in the early 19th century the curriculum at Oxford was notoriously narrow and impractical. Sir Spencer Walpole , a historian of contemporary Britain and a senior government official, had not attended any university. He says, "few medical men, few solicitors, few persons intended for commerce or trade, ever dreamed of passing through a university career.
It was impossible to collect some thousand or twelve hundred of the best young men in England, to give them the opportunity of making acquaintance with one another, and full liberty to live their lives in their own way, without evolving in the best among them, some admirable qualities of loyalty, independence, and self-control.
If the average undergraduate carried from University little or no learning, which was of any service to him, he carried from it a knowledge of men and respect for his fellows and himself, a reverence for the past, a code of honour for the present, which could not but be serviceable.
First, I am not suing for money. As a Jew in prewar Germany, he overcame serious difficulties before he was admitted into Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitat, earning his PhD in Romance linguistics, magna cum laude, in His first political speech was delivered when he was only 18 to the Women's Co-op Guild of Tonypandy, and in he led a hunger march from that town to Cardiff
This took him to almost every town in Wales and sometimes to the United States. Joshua Getzler Fellow and Tutor in Law