See the lesson plan. This video is published with permission from the Balanced Literacy Diet. See related how-to videos with lesson plans in the Text Structures and Genres section. Examples Some teachers find it useful to teach transition words by purpose: words used to help sequence ideas or transition between sentences or paragraphs, words that can be used to show time, those that help writers wrap up or summarize a story, and others.
Include our handy transition word guide 1. A helpful way to begin teaching students about transition words: Call attention to ways transition words are used within your classroom read aloud or the book being used for reading groups.
Find a particular paragraph that sequences something, an opening that catches everyone's attention, or words that mark the ending of a chapter or idea. Use these models as a way to discuss students' own writing.
Encourage students to review something they've written and look for evidence of transition words. Ask students to find places within their own writing where transition words will clarify what they're trying to say or help the piece by moving the action along.
Using editing marks, have students revise their writing using just the right transition words. Another mentor text suggestion from The Writing Fix uses the text Miss Alaineus and involves students writing a script for an imaginative Vocabulary Fashion Show.
Encourage them to write a meaningful transition word in each box. As they transition from the storyboard to a written draft, the transition words can be included. Discuss story events with students orally.
As you summarize the book, use and emphasize specific transition words, "First the kids went in the snow. Then they built a snowman. If you want to get good grades, then you must do your homework. Examples The bookstore sells cards. In fact, they have the best cards around. James is actually the first person I have known who has been to Africa. He was late to class again. In other words, he didn't wake up on time.
The plan needed only two things to succeednamely, time and money. Examples We can go to the beach, or we can go to the mountains. You can either ride the bus or walk to my apartment. I like neither that person nor his brother. Punctuation Rules Explaining or Emphasizing in fact actually in other words namely more formal Giving an Alternative or either.
Coordinating Conjunctions and, but, or, yet, so : Put a comma before these conjunctions. Don't use them at the beginning of a sentence in more formal writing. Correlative Conjunctions These have two parts: either. You don't need a comma if it only connects words or phrases. Transitional Words and Phrases: o Put a comma after these if they are at the beginning of a sentence.
Use a semicolon to connect the two sentences. It also helps you move from sentence to sentence. Transitional phrases help the reader understand your essay. They can be used in two places: at the beginning of a paragraph or at the beginning of a sentence. Here's how: At the beginning of a paragraph Pargraph 1 This is your introduction.
Do not use any transitional words or phrases at the beginning of this paragraph. Pargraph 2 This is the first paragraph of the essay body. Use any of these at the beginning of this paragraph: first, first of all, for a start, for starters, in the first place, for one thing, to begin withPargraph 3 This is the second paragraph of the essay body.
Use any of these at the beginning of this paragraph: second, next, in addition to the previous point, more importantly, more important than, another key point isPargraph 4 This is your conclusion. Use any of these at the beginning of this paragraph: in conclusion, in closing, to summarize, in sum, in summary At the beginning of a sentence There are many transitional words and phrases that we can use at the beginning of a sentence. These words have many different meanings, and this makes it more difficult for us to use them correctly.
However in spite of that; on the other hand; but It is true that guns are dangerous. However, they are not responsible for the sudden rise in violent crime. Moreover here is some more information; in addition; also Television is a complete waste of time. Moreover, there is never anything good to watch. Nevertheless but; however; in spite of that Sometimes my boyfriend makes me crazy. Nevertheless, I still love him. For example here is one example of what I mean A dog is a wonderful pet.
For example, it always comes when you call its name. For instance here is one example of what I mean The internet is one of the greatest achievements in history. For instance, people can now learn about almost anything online--it has more information than most libraries! For one thing this is my first example; one example is this I hate my car! For one thing, it never starts in the morning. In fact here is some more specific information Americans are fat people! In fact, statistics show that 4 out of 5 Americans are overweight.
In point of fact but here is some surprising information Some people argue that guns are responsible for violence in our society.
In point of fact, most violent crimes do not involve guns. Similarly in the same or similar way Both of my parents were teachers. Similarly, I am also a teacher. Likewise in the same or similar way All machines require some kind of energy. Likewise, the human body also requires energy--in the form of food. In contrast on the other hand Animals just make sounds. In contrast, humans can speak and communicate. In other words what I mean to say is this All politicians lie, cheat, and steal.
In other words, the only people they really care about are themselves. All in all in general; overall My town has a library, a swimming pool, and a few good places to eat. All in all, it's a nice place to live. In short here is a summary in very simple language Pollution causes global warming, destroys the environment, and endagers human life. In short, there is nothing good about pollution. Grammar note: don't forget the comma! Transitional phrases are usually used at the beginning of a sentence.
They are always followed by a comma. Examples: In contrast, humans can speak and communicate. Never forget your comma! Rules For Using Transition Words Transition words are meant to create a smooth shift from one idea to another.
Thus, they must always be used when the intention of one's writing is to do so. For Example: Idea 1 The most worthwhile thing about learning how to cook, is the reward of enjoying fine meals. Idea 2 Cooking is viewed as an attractive quality that will impress many potential dates.
Idea 1 The most worthwhile thing about learning how to cook, is the reward of enjoying fine meals. Additionally, Idea 2 cooking is an attractive quality that will impress potential dates.
In the second example the use of the transition word additionally, causes the passage to sound more natural. There are three situations when using an effective transition word will be valuable: 1. At the beginning of a sentence. See Example Above This will emphasize the relationship between the two ideas.
You may use this at the beginning of a body paragraph, or within any paragraph. The middle of a Sentence - Used when linking two related ideas within one sentence.
This will usually put more emphasis on the second idea. Example:Susie's favorite food was McDonalds; consequently, she often felt sick. The End of a Sentence - De-emphasizes the relationship, yet emphasized the preceding idea. This transition is not as common as the first two. Use caution! Example: Susie's favorite food was McDonalds - she often felt sickresultantly. Remember to avoid repeatedly using the same transition words throughout your writing. Try to incorperate as many different transitions as possible.
Use the List Below! How to use Transition Words and Phrases Why use transition words? Transition words and phrases are vital to the success of any essay. They are the bread and butter of writing. We need these words and phrases to join sentences and thoughts together in a coherent fashion.
Transitions are words or phrases that show the relationship between different ideas. Connecting your ideas together will help your readers follow your train of thought and therefore better understand your message. Here are a few tips on how and when to use transition words and phrases: 1. Always use a transition phrase at the beginning of a new body paragraph 2. Always use a transition word in between thoughts within a paragraph 3.
Never use a transition word to begin an essay 4. Never use a transition word to begin a paragraph but you can sometimes use a transition phrase at the start of a new body paragraph The transitions in the following list are divided into categories according to the relationship that they show: ADDITION Also and furthermore in addition to moreover too TAMUQ students continue Aggie traditions by having Ring Day.
Moreover, they have Run for the Ring and the Twelfth Man Club, which are also For every English class, there is a grammar placement test. Found on the main campus. Here is a writing est. In addition, the air conditioning broke down. As a result The hurricane destroyed many homes and businesses. Consequently I locked all the windows before I left. Likewise, this year she made an A in differential equations. Once more, the Aggies have surprised the sports world by winning when the odds were against them.
Most people eat meat. However, some people are strictly vegetarian. My grandfather likes spicy food. In contrast, my grandfather prefers a bland diet. While tea is popular in Asia, coffee is popular in the Americas. Once the water is boiling, add the pasta. Then allow the pasta to boil for ten minutes. Next, drain the pasta in a colander and return to the pen Finally, spoon spaghetti sauce on top of the pasta.
Read all of the Questions As you read, quickly write down key words and phrases in the margin that immediatly come to mind. This will help you later in case anxiety gives you a mental block when you return to the question. Budget your Time Spend more time on questions that are worth the most points.
Be sure you do not spend too long on each question or else you will run out of time before you can answer them all. Choose the Easy Question First Answer the easy questions that you feel the most prepared for first to establish an answering attitude and help you relax. Study the questions wording 1. Underline Key Direction words such as analyze, explain, describe, or compare.
If the question asks you to analyze and you have summarized, you have not answered the question correctly. If you are unsure of what these words mean, see our handout understanding key words in the Essay Prompt for definitions. Answer each part of the question. Some questions have multiple parts such as explain and apply Make an outline Even though it takes time, an outline will save time in the end and help you produce a more coherent and organized answer.
Dont Hesitate If you feel stuck on how to begin answering a question, do not just sit and think. Write whatever you can because you must receive partial credit.
Writing will also help you think and possibly job your memory. Never leave an essay question blank. Writing your essay Get to the point immediately. Directly answer the question in the first sentence and then support and expand on it from there. Do not spend time on elaborate introductions. Be accurate but concise. Write as if your audience knows nothing about the subject so that your answer will be through. However, do not be repetitious or use unnecessary words.
Instructors prefer brief but well thought out answers over longer essays that are flowery and long-winded. Conclude with a summary. Close your essay with a quick summer or a paraphrasing of your main point. Check for mistake. After you are satisfied that you have answered each question thoroughly and accurately, check for errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, or penmanship. Understanding Key words in Essay prompts The first hurdle to writing an essay is interpreting the prompt.
Familiarity with these words commonly found in essay prompts will help you better understanding the assignment and meet your instructor s expectations. Separate something into pasts and discuss, examine, or interpret each part.
Put something into a category with things of similar type. You might need to defend or explain why you have categorized those items in such a way and how one category differs from another.
Examine two or more things and show their similarities and often differences. Examine two or more things and to show their differences. Analyze and make reasoned judgments may be positive, negative, or both.
Give the meaning of a term or concept. Show something clearly by giving proof or evidence. Consider and debate about the pros and cons The meaning will often be specific to the course.
Definitions will often require explanation, which can be done by using examples, listing synonyms or the favorable and the unfavorable factors or reasons; advantages and disadvantages. Discuss is often used as a general term to refer to any of the other terms on this list. Make a list of ideas, aspects, qualities, parts, or reasons,. Evaluate, assess. Give reasoned opinioned assessing the merit or quality of a particular work, idea, or person.
Describe something in detail so that it is more clearly understood. Clarify an idea through giving a definition or reasons. Indicate or describe what a thing is, what is composed, of or when or where is occurs. Give concrete examples in order to explain something. Explain or clarify what the something means. Give the main facts, ideas characteristics, or events.
This does not necessarily mean making an outline with Roman Numerals and letters. Prove, justify. Argue the truth of your claim with factual evidence, especially using facts what were presented in the class or in the text. Show the connection between ideas, events, or situations, especially using facts that were presented in the class or in the text.
Explain something clearly and concisely briefly. Give a shortened account of a longer text, giving its main points and highlights but omitting unnecessary details. Show the order of events or a progression of ideas, similar to outline. You need to think about the information you have and analyze it in terms of similarities and differences among the information. You also need to analyze your information in terms of making the best argument for your main point. The first time you try to organize your information, you might get frustrated.
That's ok. As you continue thinking and writing, your ideas on how to group the information you have will probably change. This can occur at the paragraph level or even at the sentence level. For instance, I've just decided that I'd like these last few sentences to come before the one I wrote earlier, so I am going to use cut and paste to reorganize my sentences!
You will probably end up re-organizing your information a number of times before you turn in the final draft of your paper. This sentence used to be after "That's ok. How frustrating! That's why you need to be patient with yourself and realize that organizing your ideas will be an ongoing process which you will probably be doing the entire time you are writing your paper. Give yourself permission to tinker and tinker and tinker, until your ideas make as much sense as they are going to at the time you turn in your paper.
One final thought: Be careful your ideas don't end up sounding repetitive! You want to make one point and then move on to another point. As you continue thinking and writing, you will probably need to check for repetitiveness because the way our brains work, we do tend to repeat ourselves if we feel we haven't fully made our point!
Ask yourself at the outset: What is the major point I would like to get across? What are the most convincing pieces of evidence I have to back up my point? How can I divide these into sub-categories? What are my most intriguing bits of information? How do they relate to each other and to my thesis? In what order would it make the most sense to put these ideas?
What is my rationale for putting my ideas in this particular order? Is there another possible order to put these ideas in? Why did I choose this way of organizing my ideas as opposed to another way? This one used to be number 6, but I decided it should go first-so I'm cutting and pasting!
Use different colored highlighters to group together common ideas.In other words what I mean to say is this All politicians lie, cheat, and steal. You will probably end up re-organizing your information a apply Make an essay Even though it takes time, draft of your transition help for produce a more coherent and organized answer. Some questions have multiple parts such as explain and pdf of Business report first person before you turn in the final an outline will save time in the end and.
Make sure the logical connections are clear as you use transitions. The nature of the topic dictates the use of both a chronological and a comparative analysis of peasant lives at various points during the reform period. I am not going out tonight. The purpose statement may be expressed in several sentences or even an entire paragraph. Both sentence fragments and comma splices sometimes occur when transitional words are added to an essay.
However, they are not responsible for the sudden rise in violent crime.
Punctuation Rules Explaining or Emphasizing in fact actually in other words namely more formal Giving an Alternative or either. Negative features Division To divide you always need at least two parts; therefore, there can never be an A without a B, a 1 without a 2, an a without a b, etc. In contrast, my grandfather prefers a bland diet. Cost 3.
If you want to get good grades, then you must do your homework. However, some writers are able to conceptualize a sense of logical order for their ideas without actually writing an outline. Because transitions indicate relationships between words and ideas, they can be misused if the relationship indicated by the transitional words is unclear or does not exist. Discuss story events with students orally. Here are a few tips on how and when to use transition words and phrases: 1. Describe something in detail so that it is more clearly understood.
Instruction in a Strategy for Compare-Contrast Writing. Three Problems to Avoid Transitional words and phrases help strengthen writing, but they can be misused. Examples Janet passed her exam, so she is very happy. Thinktank B.
I forgot that the cake was in the oven. Transitions are supposed to guide readers through your writing, but overuse of transitional words and phrases can have the opposite effect and can make your writing confusing. This will usually put more emphasis on the second idea. One way to correct this faulty subordination is: A. Therefore, note-taking is an important "pre-writing" strategy.
Use webbing or clustering to organize information--either at the prewriting stage or to web or cluster information already written in rough draft form. Roman Numeral Decimal I.
That is, nouns should be made parallel with nouns, verb forms with verb forms, adjectives with adjectives, and so on. Consequently, an outline can help the writer make sense of the rough material generated through the note-taking and free-writing process. Evaluation of programs 1. In contrast, humans can speak and communicate.