In , the NHS in England embarked on the most ambitious and expensive IT-based transformation in healthcare in history seeking to introduce electronic health records into all hospitals in England by How accurate are users in doing the task?
Findings from the usability inspection and testing were largely consistent and were used to generate several recommendations regarding the phr information architecture, content and presentation. These methods help understand the experiences of people using or planning on using eHealth solutions. Analysis: Reading, coding and comparison progressed iteratively. The five types can be termed: qualitative studies, case studies, usability studies, mixed methods studies, and other methods studies including ethnography, action research, and grounded theory studies. How is a case study conducted?
Collect the data - The researcher now collects the data with the objective of gathering multiple sources of evidence with reference to the problem under study. However, the turbulence, which surrounded reorganisation was found to have the opposite desired effect. For instance, eHealth systems often leave digital footprints in the form of system usage patterns and user profiles which may help in assessing system uptake and potentially in understanding system impact. Practical, informal, learning opportunities were valued by students.
Methodological Considerations There are a range of methodological issues that need to be considered when designing, undertaking and reporting a descriptive eHealth evaluation. Open in a separate window Table 2 Example of a case study investigating the process of planning and implementing a service in Primary Care Organisations[ 4 ] Context: Health work forces globally are needing to reorganise and reconfigure in order to meet the challenges posed by the increased numbers of people living with long-term conditions in an efficient and sustainable manner. The five types can be termed: qualitative studies, case studies, usability studies, mixed methods studies, and other methods studies including ethnography, action research, and grounded theory studies. In the field of information systems research, grounded theory methodology is useful for developing context-based, process-oriented descriptions and explanations of the phenomena Myers, b.
Doolin has, for example, noted that in the context of undertaking interpretative case studies, researchers can usefully draw on a critical, reflective perspective which seeks to take into account the wider social and political environment that has shaped the case[ 11 ]. Only someone qualified to diagnose and treat a person can conduct a formal case study relating to atypical i. Department of Health to evaluate the implementation and impact of the summary care record scr and HealthSpace programmes Greenhalgh, Stramer et al. This means that there is a lot of scope for observer bias and it could be that the subjective opinions of the psychologist intrude in the assessment of what the data means. In terms of evaluation dissemination, the study findings should reach all stakeholders considering uptake of similar technology. Feedback from dissemination of interim findings is a valuable component of the evaluation per se.
Through studying the introduction of General Practitioners with a Special Interest in respiratory disorders, this study aimed to provide insights into this important issue by focusing on community respiratory service development.
Analysis: Qualitative data were analysed thematically using a socio-technical coding matrix, combined with additional themes that emerged from the data. Although using a commercial phr product, its usability evaluation aimed to assess the early design of the phr software and to provide constructive feedback and recommendations to the phr project team in a timely way so as to improve the phr software prior to its launch. Exploratory or pilot case studies. Objective: To understand and compare the process of workforce change in respiratory services and the impact on patient experience specifically in relation to the role of general practitioners with special interests in a theoretically selected sample of Primary Care Organisations PCOs , in order to derive models of good practice in planning and the implementation of a broad range of workforce issues. In a case where the market of any organization is in jepoardy, the agency will seek answers and solutions. The top-down, government-led standardised approach needed to evolve to admit more variation and greater local choice for hospitals in order to support local service delivery.
Cumulative case studies.
Key findings: Barriers to ethnic minority recruitment were found to centre around: 1. This method is useful for answering cause and effect questions. A key element in reporting mixed methods studies is to describe the study procedures in detail to inform readers about the study quality. It provides the basis for the application of ideas and extension of methods. The primary methods used include: interviews, surveys, focus groups, observations and in some cases, field trials. Three types of cases may thus be distinguished for selection: Key cases Outlier cases Local knowledge cases Whatever the frame of reference for the choice of the subject of the case study key, outlier, local knowledge , there is a distinction to be made between the subject and the object of the case study.
Management Information Systems Quarterly. The inmates are running the asylum: Why high-tech products drive us crazy and how to restore the sanity.
Case study research can involve a single case study or multiple case studies; and can take the strategy of an explanatory, exploratory or descriptive approach Yin, The key decisions in designing a case study involve: a how to define the case being studied; b how to determine the relevant data to be collected; and c what should be done with the data once collected Yin, Qualitative study design can be used in both formative and summative evaluations of eHealth interventions. Other Methods ethnography, action research, grounded theory In addition to the above four main categories of designs used in eHealth evaluation studies, this section introduces a few other relevant and powerful approaches, including ethnography, action research, and grounded theory methods. Study Objectives and Questions The high-level goals of an eHealth evaluation study are often planned in the initial phase of the study. Reality may be an objective thing, but it is understood and interpreted by people who, in turn, act upon it, and so critical realism , which addresses the connection between the natural and social worlds, is a useful basis for analyzing the environment of and events within an organization.
References Benbasat I. Interpretation of the findings may characterize how the eHealth intervention enabled a transformation in healthcare practices. Descriptive studies focus on describing the process and impact of eHealth system development and implementation, which often are contextualized within the implementation environment e. The Alberta phr study represents an exemplary case of usability evaluations to inform the development of a government-sponsored phr project.