The reality of an empathetic, compassionate, just and democratic classroom. The foundation of this study was laid when I saw the children in need suffer due to insensitive teaching practices and uncooperative peers and family.
I was concerned with the trauma faced by students in the prevalent educational setting in India. I believe that what I do in education should help make changes for the better in our society.
Life skills enhancement, in my understanding, was a way to alleviate the stress the children experienced seeing that life skill education promotes mental well-being in young people and behavioural preparedness. As a drama teacher I see drama as tool for education. It is a natural vehicle for explorative and experiential learning. The aim of my thesis is to describe and reflect on the learning process and the context in which it occurs.
This performative situation differs from the situation e. The performative character of dramatic speech becomes obvious for example in shouts, questions, commands, threats, promises and persuasions, all of which are speech acts that frequently occur especially in drama Language in drama is represented as direct speech "All literature is made up of words," but the things that are said in plays, which "are made up of spoken words"12, are conveyed directly without being mediated or filtered by means of a narrator - unlike in the communication system of the novel In so far as direct speech, in the form of both dialogue and monologue, is the predominant mode of verbal expression in drama, it is tied to the characters.
This fact enables the audience to infer a figure's character from what it says That is why it has been among the most important conventions of drama since the antiquity that the utterances of a figure be in accord with its nature and its views of the world.
The interlocking of language and acting or, in other words, the supplementation of dramatic speech by facial expression and gestures has to be considered as another characteristic of dramatic language The functions of dramatic language Dramatic utterances are polyfunctional: they can have several functions at the same time, both in the internal and the external communication system. However, the functions in the internal and external communication system do not necessarily have to coincide The referential function The spoken word in drama functions as a means of representing objects like humans, things or events that are talked about This referential or informative function of language does not only refer to the internal communication system but aims at the audience as well.
It dominates those elements of the plot that are presented rather in a narrative form, especially forms of dramatic report like the exposition or a messenger's report The expressive function Characters are brought to life by their choice of words and style.
In drama, a figure's verbal behaviour is among the most important means of characterisation. The soliloquy of reflection, for example, is predominated by this expressive function as it expresses the consciousness of the speaker However, apart from the cases of conscious and intended expressive self-characterisation20 the expressive function is existent, at least latently, in all utterances of a character By its utterances a figure can unintentionally reveal certain traits of character or show itself as the member of a particular social level The appellative function The more a speaker tries to influence his or her dialogue partner, the stronger the appellative or conative function of dramatic language will be It is probably the most important function in the internal communication system of dramatic texts.
As regards the external communication system, this function is, apart from didactic dramas, not that important The phatic function The phatic function of language is associated with the channel between speaker and listener and is designed to create and maintain the contact between both.
Some of the phenomena that have appellative function, for example addressing the dialogue partner, also function phatically as they create a communicative contact. Dramatic utterances also function phatically as regards the external communication system, for example in those cases where they are meant to arouse the audience's eager anticipation of the following events The phatic function of language is especially frequent in modern drama where the dialogue is above all a means of creating and maintaining contact between the dialogue partners while the referential function is not that important The metalingual function This function of language is associated with the verbal code.
It becomes important when the verbal code itself becomes the central theme of a dialogue This is the case for example when the meeting of two dialogue partners results in a contrast between vulgar language and a more differentiated mode of expression Also when these differences between the codes of the dialogue partners have become too big the eventual communication breakdown implicitly points to the metalingual aspects of these utterances The metalingual function also dominates in word- or language plays like puns as these are making use of the witty and satirical possibilities of language The poetic function This function only applies to the relationship between the internal communication system of the dramatis personae and the external communication system of the audience The fact that the characters in a shakespearean drama are talking blank verse is not appreciated as poetry by their dialogue partners but only by the audience.
In those cases, however, where the poetical function of an utterance is explicitly or implicitly emphasized in the internal communication system the utterance in question is assigned a metalingual function as well Characterisation by means of language As has been pointed out before33, a dramatic figure is portrayed by what it says and how it says it.
Accordingly, the correspondence of the language a character uses and his or her position in society has been considered important from the antiquity to the 18th century.
When we look at how a figure is characterized by means of its utterances, we have to consider whether this verbal self-presentation is implicit or explicit, or, in other words, whether a figure voluntarily or involuntarily characterises itself A character can explicitly and consciously outline a picture of itself.
However, information conveyed in this way is not objective and should be evaluated as a rather subjectively coloured self-presentation. On the other hand, a figure can reveal its true character involuntarily and unconsciously, for example through the style of language it uses - does the character speak standard English or some dialect or other subcode and thus show itself as the member of a particular social level?
Does he ignore what the others say or does he interrupt the others? Does the character frequently turn to monological speech? All of these points would indicate a certain degree of egocentricity on the part of the figure in question.
Dramatic language and action The audience has to be able to follow the course of the drama and is not normally inclined to do so for more than three hours. That is why conciseness, clarity and coherence are the principles that shape the conception of a drama and the structuring of speech As a result a character's utterances are mostly restricted to the really essential things.
This economy of speech based on the selection of representative aspects undertaken by the playwright is an outstanding characteristic of dramatic language The relationship between what a character says and the action is thus a strictly functional one - "[A character in a play] is limited in his or her utterances to what bears on the play as a whole, keeps it moving" In other words, apart from the mere informative function a character's utterances often simultaneously represent actions and imply stage directions They are able to cause changes in the dramatic situation40 - dramatic dialogue can thus be defined as spoken action This idea of language as action is called speech act theory.Does he ignore what the others say or ideas he interrupt the others. Even in politics where dramatic speech imitates everyday Hot dress less photosynthesis, for example in naturalist justification or the modern Persian "kitchen pdf drama," we have to drama it as global speech. A feature that it gives with everyday speech is the organization that its performance is bound to a subtle thesis, i.
After all, dramatic dialogues are intended to be heard by the audience and to have an effect on it. As regards the external communication system, this function is, apart from didactic dramas, not that important This defined structure guided me through systematic and conscious data collection, data analysis, and reflection.
The banter of servants and clowns in Shakespeare's plays or Beckett's dialogues for instance are examples of conversation for conversation's sake that do not bring about any changes in the dramatic situation These stylistic devices are perceived consciously by the audience but have no effect on the interlocutors of the dramatic situation as it is a convention of dramatic language that the dramatis personae are not aware of their own stylised manner of speaking7. Language in drama is represented as direct speech "All literature is made up of words," but the things that are said in plays, which "are made up of spoken words"12, are conveyed directly without being mediated or filtered by means of a narrator - unlike in the communication system of the novel
This was accomplished through augmentation of creativity, emotional understanding and development, improved self-esteem and a notion of the joy of autonomy to enable the students to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Dramatic speech, however, is semantically more complex as regards its orientation both towards the receiver and towards the sender of an utterance. The artistic character of dramatic language The artificial or artistic character of dramatic language becomes obvious in its deviations from everyday language as well as from the language used in other literary forms.
This fact enables the audience to infer a figure's character from what it says Language in drama Is represented as spoken language It is only in exceptional cases that language appears on the stage in writing, for example when banners or signboards are used Introduction Language has a key position in drama as it is, like in real life, the most important means of communication on stage. Platz-Waury The aim of my thesis is to describe and reflect on the learning process and the context in which it occurs.
Also when these differences between the codes of the dialogue partners have become too big the eventual communication breakdown implicitly points to the metalingual aspects of these utterances For the most part, however, language is represented as spoken language in drama.