And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? And to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? These things said Isaiah, when he saw his glory, and spoke of him. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed. Deutero-Isaiah was also familiar with the book of Lamentations, which contains exilic poems that mourn the destruction of Jerusalem.
And Deutero-Isaiah did the same thing with Lamentations it did with Jeremiah. It intentionally reversed the theme that opens the work. There is none to comfort her. Judah has gone into exile Because of misery and harsh oppression. The authors of the material in Deutero-Isaiah used this motif from Lamentations as a central theme throughout their work. And this is only one of many connections between the two literary works. O wall of Fair Zion, Shed tears like a torrent Day and night!
Give yourself no respite, Your eyes no rest. Arise, cry out in the night At the beginning of the watches, Pour out your heart like water In the presence of the Lord! These authors also show awareness of postexilic psalms, including Psalm a text that shows signs of late biblical Hebrew.
Not only does this fact provide compelling proof that the material in was written by other authors, it shows that these authors were living in a time when Jews were speaking Aramaic. Aramaic became the international language used by the Assyrians to govern their empire in the eighth century. But Jews living in Jerusalem during the time of the historical Isaiah spoke Hebrew.
It also explains why we do not see any Aramaic influence in the material connected with the historical Isaiah. All of this changed, however, in the exile after BCE. Aramaic became the language spoken by the Jews. This is why the current Hebrew Bible uses the Aramaic square script instead of the original Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. This explains why the postexilic book of Daniel contains Aramaic chapters.
It also explains why there is a strong Aramaic influence on the material in Isaiah This presents compelling evidence that these oracles were composed during the postexilic era when Jews were speaking Aramaic. Postexilic Hebrew This is a complicated issue that is difficult to explain in a simple blog post.
However, these various book parts are, production-hermeneutically speaking, not on the same level — just as the various building phases of medieval cathedrals differ from each other — they are rather diachronically layered and interlocked. The synchronic reading of the final form does not offer a solution derived from the diachronic inquiry. Beuken, Jesaja Freiburg i. Watts, Isaiah Waco, Tex. Childs, Isaiah Louisville, Ky. The scholarly commentary is nothing but a guide through the interwoven character of words and meanings of biblical books, the prophetic books being particularly in need of explanation due to their discursive erratic nature.
The final form is consequently not the solution but rather the starting point, as well as point of destination for analysis and commentary. Prior to the formation of every hypothesis towards a diachronic genesis and a redactional layering lies the detailed exploration of the text form at hand, and every specification and analysis must serve towards its illumination.
This approach has far-reaching consequences, as considerations about composition should precede redaction- critical aspects, thereby taking care not to separate that which serves the structures that overstep the narrow boundaries of pericope and chapter.
During the first and longest epoch which begins with the formative phase of the origin of the text and stretches over the rabbinic and patristic era up to the Renaissance,18 Isaiah was perceived to be the undisputed author, or rather the authority of the book with the same name. Heb ; jSanh X, 2; bSanh b. Interestingly enough, biblical tradition does not consider Isaiah ben Amoz to be the author, but rather the visionary who stands behind the divine 17 Rainer Albertz, Die Exilszeit.
Jahrhundert v. Henning G. Reventlow, Epochen der Bibelauslegung 4 vols. Beck, ; for Isaiah compare John F. Sawyer, The Fifth Gospel. Both are tradition literature, as opposed to author literature: collections of that which was taught and handed down in the name of authoritative personalities rather than authors.
Because the author does not matter, but rather the authority in whose name the book is written, the great books of the prophets can contain but a few words of the historical Isaiah, Jeremiah or Ezekiel, without them having the incorrect title.
Similarly, words of the prophetic discourse founders of an Isaiah, a Jeremiah or an Ezekiel were being interpreted in a continuous manner in the circles of the prophetic tradents, who, putting them into the mouths of these discourse founders, imbued them with their legitimacy by means of the prophetic authority in competition with Moses and functioned as revelation mediators of divine words. Hossfeld eds.
Everything that is contained in this scroll is considered to be the vision of this Man of God. Thus, in the great Qumran-Isaiah-scroll from the last third of the second century,24 Isa directly connects to the last verse of chapter 39 as the last line in a column as opposed to Isa There can be no question of an epochal new beginning.
On the contrary: the vision of Isaiah ben Amoz continues seamlessly in chapter This view is shared by Sir , as here the healing of Hezekiah by the prophet is directly followed by the comforting of Zion Isa On the whole, therefore, up until the end of the 18th century C.
Isaiah was considered to be the authority who was responsible for the content of the entire scroll. Only the Jewish exegete Abraham Ibn Ezra voiced some doubts in his Isaiah commentaries, written in , as to whether the prophet from Jerusalem could also have spoken the words of comfort contained in Isa , as these chapters already applied to the end of the Babylonian exile.
Out of concern as to the reaction of the orthodoxy, Ibn Ezra avoided an explicit opinion on this subject. To compound matters, Isaiah is said not only to have announced the prospect of salvation, but also to have mentioned the name of the new Persian ruler, Cyrus II in Isa ; It was this problem which gave rise, toward the end of the 18th century, to the argument between ecclesiastical and rationalistic interpretation.
This argument was not only concerned with the question as to which words can be traced back to Isaiah, but more fundamentally with the question as to what rationally comprehensible accreditation one was prepared to give to the prophets and what not. This is of utmost importance to the emergence of the Deutero-Isaiah hypothesis. A New Edition Leiden: Brill, John A. Emerton, Leiden: Brill, , The solution was as simple as it was brilliant: Isa was not written by Isaiah ben Amoz, but rather by an inspired prophet whose name and identity, however, remained unknown.
To date the research into Isaiah is thus deeply characterised by the idea of an individual prophet in exile, whose literary opus, handed down and continued by students, is now at hand.
A writer personality emerged out of this hypothesis with very distinct character traits. Duhm himself, however, could 26 Jean M. Mohr, , As it is, the concept of the author, his honours, rights and duties were not really understood anyway, and the names of their historians and poets were all the same to them.
It is a culture-historical mistake to transpose our literary views onto the Israelite-Jewish literature […]. The strategy is obvious: for all texts of the Book of Isaiah, which, due to their historical statement, do not fit into the time of the Jerusalem prophets, additional anonymous authors are created. Had he done that, the concepts of a Deutero- and Trito-Isaiah would probably have met with much more criticism. Especially the literary name Deutero-Isaiah thus nurtures the opinion to this day that, apart from the name, a great deal is known about the exilic poet, the climax of Israelite prophecy.
It rather views it as crucial to the basic approach towards personal tradition and investigation. Without the name, historical man would not be discernible from pre-historic man. No portrait artist of Deutero-Isaiah lacked brushes, palette, colours or divination, only — the nail to hang the painting. As men inspired by God they announced the coming of the last and final Revelation in the form of Jesus of Nazareth. That which applies to the prophets in general applies to a much higher degree to Deutero-Isaiah, the evangelist of the OT.
His assessment hits the nail on the head: The widely held concept of a prophetic figure operating shortly before — awkwardly named Deutero-Isaiah — subconsciously originates from the aspiration to preserve a prestigious and important text like Isa from the fate of redactional anonymity, which would have condemned it exegetically to meaninglessness.
Real prophetic figures did not remain anonymous, the great revisers of the biblical books on the other hand did remain so, and with good reason. Much later than in the texts of the Pentateuch or in the books of the Deuteronomistic History Joshua — 2 Kings , literary-critical divisions were put in place and redactional layers were determined. Richard J. Here a consensual majority excludes the so-called Prologue in Texts of differing origin were assumably compiled into a composition by literary scholarly circles.
Kratz, Kyros im Deuterojesaja-Buch. These returning emigrants view it as their task to bring a message of comfort to Zion, but rather appear to have encountered some objections in Zion. These objections obviously led to the first edition of the book. The primary concern of this book is the self-assurance of a group in post-exilic Jerusalem. Essays in Honour of Peter R.
Ackroyd eds. Williamson, The Book Called Isaiah. In this manner the contribution of the exilic Anonymous to the literary opus would be reduced; however, the concept of an individual author personality would not have to be discarded.
To an extent the problem of anonymity is further reinforced by the circle-of-scholars thesis; why would the group of tradents otherwise not have handed down the name and the concrete appearance of their master? If one scans the latest and most recent publications concerning Isa 55, the impression is reinforced that the idea of an exilic prophetic figure comes under increasing pressure and that there can be no question of an unconditional defence of this hypothesis.
Odil H. The individual character that is part of Deutero-Isaiah is mainly due to the different genres that were used. It is not an individual signature.
Jan C. The information in 1 Chr where such behaviour is explicitly denoted as prophetic activity nif. If a prophetic poet and thinker should actually be behind Isa who, animated by the grandiose victory march of the Persian ruler Cyrus, for whom all doors stood open after the success against Croesus of Lydia B.
Increasingly scholarly thought leans towards this direction: In these strong words of salvation a profile of the congregation becomes apparent. Merely the literary footprints of the divinely authorised speakers and orators can be detected. Ezk ; ; ; Unlike in the latter cf. Ezk ; ; , 8 etc. Johannes C. Gerstenberger, Israel in der Perserzeit. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, , ; less transparent, but tending towards the same direction is Reinhard G. Isaiah Leiden: Brill, , 18 footnote 3.
But who is this person who receives this assignment from God and passes it on to the collective of messangers? The prophet is only present in his message and his official position. There is simply no information forthcoming by means of an entrance scene, for instance, as can be repeatedly verified for Ezekiel cf. Ezek Rendtorff eds. Erhard Blum et al, Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, , These statements are moreover not in accordance with a real prophet.
It is not his duty and function to convert all heathens, nor is he successful in doing so. Moreover, the theme of the prophetic spiritual gift refers to the first Servant Song in ff cf.
The prophetic vanguard of the returned Golah continues in the final corpus of the book with the servants cf.
The enquiry of Diethelm Michel indicates the solution to the problem: The question arises as to whether the problems with the attempts to 58 Cf. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, new print , footnote 1. It is therefore quite feasible that, analogous to the poets back home, those living in exile set about to outline a production of hope and deliverance which only reached its completion and performance after their return around B.
Do not touch! This correspondence reinforces the view that the addressees concerned and for whom the command in Isa to return home is intended are cultic officials.
The present demand of separation from Babylon, the place of idolatry, is being parallelised with the former dissociation from the sinful Levites. The temple-singer hypothesis is furthermore supported by the considerable close connections of Isa and Pss 96 and 98, which sing the praises of the universal Kingdom of YHWH.
The opposite is more likely: the composers of Isa borrowed from an existent hymnic tradition for certain pivotal points of their dramatic composition, or even from these very songs passed on to us in Pss 98 and The affinities of Isa are not, however, merely restricted to the Book of Lamentations and a few Psalms, but rather encompass all important traditions of the Hebrew Bible like the patriarchal narratives Abraham and 68 See Patricia T.
Willey, Remember the Former Things. Beuken eds.Isaias, der Prophet und sein Buch. Der eine Gott und die himmlischen Heerscharen. Judah has gone into exile Because of misery and harsh oppression. Watts, Rikki E.
Perhaps even more telling, if the book of Isaiah existed in any form with its prophecies concerning the exile and restoration of the doomed city then Jeremiah would have had prophetic material that he could have used to support his own prophecy. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, If one scans the latest and most recent publications concerning Isa 55, the impression is reinforced that the idea of an exilic prophetic figure comes under increasing pressure and that there can be no question of an unconditional defence of this hypothesis.
Eaton, John H. Jan C.
And thus you can toss the Deutero-Isaiah hypothesis onto the scrap-heap of pseudo-scholarship once and for all. He made explicit an interpretation of history that, although it had been implied in the teachings of the earlier prophets, had never been stated as clearly by any of them.