Kindon, Andrew W.. University of California, Los Angeles". Kulongoski, J. University of California San Diego. LaMotta, V. Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona". Lemelin, M -J..
Lowe, Ashley. Rice University. Lowrey, Nathan. American University, Washington, D. Minckley, Thomas. University of Oregon. Montero, C.. Morrill, Carrie. Mosola, Amanda B.. Moyes, H.. Department of Anthropology, University of Buffalo". Murray, Shawn S..
University of Wisconsin-Madison. Pearson, M. Pigati, Jeffrey S. Placzek, Christa. Prufer, K. Southern Illinois University". Rivera-Casanovas, Claudia. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania". Rumold, C.. Sivan, O.. Hebrew University, Israel". Stutte, Nicole Anne.
Portland State University, Portland, Oregon". Sung, Yi-Hsuan. National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 52pp. Triplett, L. Croix, USA. Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Minnesota". Vogel, M.. Department of Anthropology, University of Pennslvania". Waguespack, Nicole Marie. University of Arizona. Wright, D..
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Chicago". Yansa, Catherine. University of Wisconsin. Zazula, Grant. University of Alberta, Canada. Opcao Geoquimica Ambiental. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, Brasil. Djennadi, Radia. Geoquimica e mineralogia. Universidade Federal Fluminense,Niteroi, Brasil".
Gil, Isabelle Martins. Gurgel, Marcio Henrique. Opcao Geoquimica Ambiental.. Mendes, Leonardo. Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira. Nascimento, Lilian Rodrigues. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, Brasil". Vargas, Gabriel. Zocatelli, Renata. Adams, E.
Grant Adler, D. Aldenderfer, M.. Aldenderfer, M. Kluwer Academic Publishers". Bach, A. Badalyan, R. Smith and P. Smith and K. Hastorf, L. Steadman, K. Moore, M. Elgar, W. Whitehead, J.
Paz, A. Cohen, M. Bruno, A. Roddick, K. Frye, M. Fernandez, J. Flores and M. Bar-Oz, G. Adler, A. Vekua, T. Meshveliani, N. Tushabramishvili, A. Belfer-Cohen and O. Mondini, S. Wickler"Colonisation, Migration, and Marginal Areas. Oxford: Oxbow Books". Adler, T. Benedict, F. Rose, J. Thomas, R. Waddell and R. Bird, Junius B. Cabal, A. Teira Mayolini. Teira Mayolini" Field trips guidebook. Stones and bones. Oxford: Archaeopress". Mettmann: Neanderthal Museum".
Santander, 5 a 8 de octubre de Santander: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cantabria". Carpenter, J. Villalpando and G. Connolly, Thomas J. Jenkins, Thomas J. Connolly and C. Costa, L. Vigne, H. Bocherens, N. Desse-Berset, C. Heinz, F. Magdeleine, M. Ruas, S.
Thiebault et C. Larsson, H. Kindgre, K. Knutsson, D. Devillers, B. Morhange, M. L'Air, M. Bourcier and M. Devillers, B.. Dyke, A. Andrews, P.
Clark, J. England, G. Miller, J. Shaw and J. Fedje, D. Mackie, E. Dixon, T. Feinman , G. Feinman, G. Nicholas, H. Haines and W.
Frachetti, M.. Evans and P. Gil, A.. Gil and G. Goman, M.. Hajic, E. Lopinot, Gina S. Powell, and Michael D. Special Publication No. Hall, D. Babcock and S. Hayes, M. Coltrain and D. Lynnerup, C. Andreasen and J. Danish Polar Center Publication No. Heaton, T. Matheus and A. Schubert, J. Mead, and R. Holliday, V. Lee Lyman and Kenneth P. Jenkins, Dennis L. Melvin Aikens. Johnson E. Joyce, A. Brown and T. Workinger and B. Burr, A. Derevianko, Y. Kuzmin and I. Derevianko and G.
Jull A. Leshin et al. Klink, C. Stanish, A. Cohen, and M. Kuzmin, Y. Gorbunov, A. Vasilevsky, L. Orlova, A. Jull and G. Laerdal, T. Talbot and J. Lemay, T. Earth Sciences Report ". Litwinionek, L. I would also like to thank the four anonymous reviewers of the draft manuscript for their constructive comments and suggestions for improvement to the text. However, particular thanks go to Rosie Duncan Cartographer in the Department of Geography who devoted many hours to the production of the maps and diagrams that are such an important part of the book as a whole.
I am grateful to the following publishers for permission to reproduce material under copyright: CAB International Ltd Figure 5. Except where acknowledged above, all other photographs were taken by the author. Introduction 1 Tourism, geography and geographies of tourism Tourism is an intensely geographic phenomenon.
Part of the contemporary significance of tourism arises from the sheer scale of the activity and the rapidity with which it has developed. From a position at the end of the Second World War when less than 25 million people worldwide travelled outside their home countries for the purposes by which we define tourism, the number of international travellers reached million people annually in WTO, To these foreign travellers and their expenditure must be added the domestic tourists who do not cross international boundaries but who, in most developed nations at least, are many times more numerous than their international counterparts.
The absolute number of tourists, however, accounts for only a part of the significance of tourism. Tourism acquires added importance, first, through the range of impacts that the movement of people on this scale inevitably produces at local, regional, national and, increasingly, at international level.
Second, and less obviously, tourism is acquiring a new level of relevance through its emblematic nature, both as a mirror of contemporary lifestyles, tastes and preferences and, more fundamentally, an embedded facet of post modern life. The sociologist John Urry has argued that mobility — in its various guises — has become central to the structuring of social life and cultural identity in the twenty-first century Urry, and tourism is an essential component in modern mobilities.
Tourism impacts are felt across the range of economic, social, cultural and environmental contexts. Globally, an estimated million people derive direct employment from the tourism business: from travel and transportation, accommodation, promotion, entertainment, visitor attractions and tourist retailing Milne and Ateljevic, Tourism is highly implicated in processes of globalisation Shaw and Williams, and has been variously recognised: as a means of advancing wider international integration within areas such as the European Union EU ; as a catalyst for modernisation, economic development and prosperity in emerging nations in the Third World Britton, ; or a pathway for regenerating post-industrial economies of the First World Robinson, It may contribute to the preservation of local cultures in the face of the homogenising effects of globalisation; it can encourage and enable the restoration and conservation of special environments; and promote international peace and understanding HigginsDesbiolles, Whilst it brings development, tourism may also be responsible for a range of detrimental impacts on the physical environment: pollution of air and water, traffic congestion, physical erosion of sites, disruption of habitats and the species that occupy places that visitors use, and the unsightly visual blight that results from poorly planned or poorly designed buildings.
The exposure of local societies and their customs to tourists can be a means of sustaining traditions and rituals, but it may also be a potent agency for cultural change, a key element in the erosion of distinctive beliefs, values and practices and a producer of nondescript, globalised forms of culture. Likewise, in the field of economic impacts, although tourism has shown itself to be capable of generating significant volumes of employment at national, regional and local levels, the uncertainties that surround a market that is more prone than most to the whims of fashion can make tourism an insecure foundation on which to build national economic growth, and the quality of jobs created within this sector as defined by their permanence, reward and remuneration levels often leaves much to be desired.
More critically, perhaps, tourism can be a vehicle for perpetuating economic inequalities, maintaining dependency and hence, neo-colonial relationships between developed and developing nations Higgins-Desbiolles, The study of tourism impacts has become a traditional means of understanding the significance of tourism and dates from seminal work conducted in the s by writers such as Mathieson and Wall More recently, work in cultural geography and related fields such as anthropology have drawn out new areas of significance for tourism.
Franklin and Crang 19 summarise this new reading of tourism and emphasise its new-found relevance thus: The tourist and styles of tourist consumption are not only emblematic of many features of contemporary life, such as mobility, restlessness, the search for authenticity and escape, but they are increasingly central to economic restructuring, globalization, the consumption of place and the aestheticization of everyday life.
Readers will detect within this medley of themes and issues much that is of direct interest to the geographer and to disregard what has become a primary area of physical, social, cultural and economic development would be to deny a pervasive and powerful force for change in the world in which we live.
The spaces and places in which tourism occurs are usually fundamental to the tourist experience — and space and place are core interests for human geographers. Furthermore, realisation of the contingent nature of tourism has encouraged a shift in critical thinking around the subject, away from traditional binary views of tourism and towards more relational perspectives. Thus, for example, rather than perpetuating a conventional view of tourism impacts as being necessarily either positive or negative in effect, or the relationship between so-called hosts and guests as being shaped around the dependency of the former on the latter, recent work in tourism geography has promoted more nuanced, equivocal understandings that have provided new insight into the ways in which tourists relate to the world around them.
However, it takes as its point of departure a key assumption — namely that to understand tourism geography one must also understand tourism. This material is included, not because it is inherently geographical per se, but because the differentiation of tourists, their motivations and the experiences that they seek are often intimately bound to resultant geographical patterns and behaviours.
It is probably a fair criticism that geographers have not made a particularly significant contribution to the development of any of these core concepts especially the differentiation of tourists or the development of tourism motivation theory and concepts of tourism experience , but the understandings that other disciplines have developed are still essential to comprehending tourism geography.
What is tourism? What is tourism and how does it relate to associated concepts of recreation and leisure? For the student this is a potential difficulty since consensus in the understanding of the term and, hence, the scope for investigation that such agreement opens up, is a desirable starting point to any structured form of enquiry and interpretation.
The differing conceptual structures and epistemologies within these disciplines lead inevitably to contrasts in perspective and emphasis. More fundamentally, perhaps, recent critical analysis has begun to offer significant challenges to traditional concepts of tourism as a bounded and separate entity, and therefore one that is open to meaningful definition see, e.
They make explicit the idea that motivations for tourism may come from one or more than one of a variety of sources. We tend to think of tourism as being associated with pleasure motives, but it can also embrace business, education, social contact, health or religion as a basis for travelling.
They draw attention to the fact that the activity of tourism requires an accessible supporting infrastructure of transport, accommodation, marketing systems, entertainment and attractions that together form the basis for the tourism industries. Official definitions of tourism have tended to be similarly broad in scope. For example, the World Tourism Organization WTO definition published in saw tourism as comprising: the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes.
WTO, This approach acknowledges that tourism occurs both between and within countries i. The recognition of forms of day visiting as constituting a part of tourism is important, primarily because the actions, impacts and, indeed, the local geographies of day visitors and excursionists are often indistinguishable in cause and effect from those of staying visitors, so to confine the study of tourism to those who stay, omits an important component from the overall concept of tourism see Williams,Hudson, J. Mammalian reovirus Type 3 Dearing stocks were prepared in L spinner cultures and purified as described previously. Mendes, Leonardo. DeLong, Stephen B. Heinz, F. Paunero R..
Manley, W. Jones at Routledge have provided support and encouragement throughout the duration of the project and shown great patience with the many delays that the work has suffered. Larsson, H. Likewise, in the field of economic impacts, although tourism has shown itself to be capable of generating significant volumes of employment at national, regional and local levels, the uncertainties that surround a market that is more prone than most to the whims of fashion can make tourism an insecure foundation on which to build national economic growth, and the quality of jobs created within this sector as defined by their permanence, reward and remuneration levels often leaves much to be desired.
Matheus and A. Santander, 5 a 8 de octubre de Martin, P. Consequently, in reworking Tourism Geography in its second edition, much more attention has been devoted to articulating relevant geographical theories and concepts and using those discussions as points of entry into the consideration of the different facets of tourism that the book explores. Rivera, Mario A.
Andreasen and J. It was recently discovered that the inhibitor, FK, alters the normal distribution of Ras. Hudson, J. Benedict Jr. The arrow indicates further enlargement. Jones at Routledge have provided support and encouragement throughout the duration of the project and shown great patience with the many delays that the work has suffered.
Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona". Arrows indicate Ras plasma membrane localization in uninfected UI cells and punctate formation following reovirus infection. Figure 1 Reovirus infection modifies oncogenic Ras and increases its level of depalmitoylation. Quantification of reovirus-infected cells by flow cytometry and plaque titration were performed as described previously. This raises interesting questions relating to where tourism takes place. Stanford University".
Cell fractionation, co-immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis For fractionation, H-RasV12 cells were syringed gauge and centrifuged at g for 10 min. O'Connell, D. Hall, D. Quantification of reovirus-infected cells by flow cytometry and plaque titration were performed as described previously.
The typical perinuclear, crescent formation of the Golgi body was clearly discernible in uninfected cells; however, the perinuclear stacks were broken up into punctate structures in reovirus-infected cells, which is an indication of early Golgi fragmentation Figure 2a and Supplementary Figure S2A.
The new edition therefore restores the convention of proper referencing of sources and, as befits an extended volume, the body of literature that supports the work has been greatly augmented. University of Arizona. I am grateful to the following publishers for permission to reproduce material under copyright: CAB International Ltd Figure 5. Here we explore a set of understandings of tourism that draw primarily upon cultural perspectives to examine themes such as consumption, place promotion, identity, heritage and tourism as an embodied practice. Rose, T. Thomas, R.
Pierce, J. Schnellmann, R. Dyke, A.