Lovelock seems to favor strong Gaia. In modern times, the name has come to symbolize "Earth Mother" or "Living Earth.
The atmosphere is supported by the process of cumulative actions of numerous organisms. Environmental Ethics Vol.
Find out more! That the Earth could be considered a vast living system in its own right. Cooperation over competition Lovelock was supported in his hypothesis by American microbiologist Lynn Margulis — who became his principal collaborator. In this inhospitable retreat, under snow and ice for most of the year, where only lichen and tiny alpine flowers grow, Arne Naess has spent a total of more than ten years, watching, climbing, thinking, writing, and adoring the mountain. When first introduced in the early s the Gaia hypothesis attracted the most attention from theologians interested in the possibility that the Earth controlled its environment on purpose i. The Earth started out as a self-regulating organism, and humans were supposed to adapt to their environment.
And in this task, in the early years of his further research concerning the Gaia hypothesis, Lovelock was supported by the collaboration of Dr Lynn Margulis , a leading and forward thinking American microbiologist. This reappearance of holism became the foundation of the Gaia hypothesis, the most recent recurrence of the ancient belief of the harmonious interconnectedness among natural phenomena on the Earth.
Margulis not only provided support, but she brought her own scientific ability and achievements to the Gaia hypothesis. However, there was a big difference between postulating such a grand schemed hypothesis and having it accepted by the traditional scientific community, and there remained much research work to be done in order to be able to more clearly specify the entirety of the processes by which the modern planetary atmosphere had been evolved and was continuing to be evolved. Foundations devoted to the Gaia theory have been organized in the Netherlands and Liechtenstein, with new ones being formed in Japan and West Germany. While the scientific community's consideration of the Gaia Hypothesis was being readied for entry into its second decade of debate, the holistic ontology which it represented was eagerly applied to an extremely wide spectrum of ecological and environmental sciences, social sciences, intellectual and philosophical movements and other not-specifically-intellectual reforms which collectively grouped themselves - as a spectrum of humanity through the prism of Gaia - as "New Age". In response to such criticism Lovelock writes: "Fortunately for me I was brought up in that school of science that believes in reading the books after rather than before an experiment.
A distinctive aspect of the deep ecology movement is its recognition of the inherent value of all other living beings, and of the inherent worth of diversity of all kinds. Essence of Gaia Theory. Drawing from the General Systems theory of Ludwig von Bertalanffy and the exploratory self-organisation of open systems by Erving Laszlo, Joanna Macy  concludes that hierarchy tends to be dysfunctional to the system because it inhibits diversity and feedback; it obstructs self-organising life processes and fosters entropy — or systemic disintegration. Particularly struck by the vast amounts of free oxygen in the terrestrial air, he wondered why this highly volatile gas did not react with other elements, such as carbon, and form stable compounds like carbon dioxide.
A philosophy as a kind of sofia or wisdom, is openly normative, it contains both norms, rules, postulates, value priority announcements and hypotheses concerning the state of affairs in our universe.
This a good method of highlighting weaknesses, inconsistencies and assumptions in a personal belief system, or to go deeper and not accept or present "shallow" arguments. So what keeps the atmosphere's oxygen content constant? Feedback mechanisms can detect and reverse any unwanted changes. Occasionally the digitization process introduces transcription errors or other problems. Deep ecology is supported by 30years wealth of experience and techniques for enabling individuals to access their own resources to build a relationship that is meaningful for them, and empowers them to live in a sustainable way. The major reemergence of the idea took place in the early 20th century in the name of holism.
The resulting state of affairs will be deeply different from the present. Gaia Hypothesis Evidence in support of a Gaian Earth Gaia, Earth , was believed by the ancient Greeks to be a living, fertile ancestor of many of their important gods. They argued that organisms in this theory would require foresight and planning and could not act in concertation.
Not far from a river in St. Scientists agree that there is clear evidence that the non-living environment has an important influence on organisms, and that organisms can cause substantial changes in their environment. There are no special roles assigned to humans in the concept of Gaia. It is no longer sufficient to say that "organisms better adapted than others are more likely to leave offspring. Photosynthesis is the process that some algae and all plants use to convert chemically the Sun 's light into food.