Chen discusses several relationships revealed in this study. Verb tense used in referring to other works APA style requires authors to use past tense or present perfect tense NOT present tense when using signal phrases to refer to or discuss previous research. Klinge and Rogers found that mirroring is instrumental in developments of performative gender roles. When giving information that reflects the results or implications of previous work, place the citation author and publication date at the end of the sentence.
Mirroring has been found to be instrumental in the development of performative gender roles Klinge and Rogers, Capitalization Always capitalize author names and initials in in-text citations. Guidelines on writing an introduction are helpful in getting started on the introduction for a paper written in APA style. Explain Start your introduction with an explanation of the problem you plan to explore within the paper and also state the paper's purpose.
The APA format requires that you clearly and concisely let your readers know what they can expect from your report or paper. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e.
This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text.
However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. Discussion labeled, centered, bold The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area.
A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general funnel out.
Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers. Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation?
If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study?
What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted.
What new knowledge would be gained from it? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Bold and centre this subtitle just like any subtitles in a paper. In the Methodology section, explain the methods used for data collection and data analysis.
Write the Results section, summarizing the key findings. Display data using graphs and charts. In the Discussion section, analyze research results and interpret them. Draw conclusions and outline steps for future studies.
Also, you have to divide them into sections. In APA format, there are 5 levels of headings which differ in size and purpose and allow writers to avoid complex numbering system. The References Page appears at the end. It provides a list of all sources cited or paraphrased in a project. Sources in the reference list should be organized in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author of every source and double-spaced.
Start the first line of each source flush left and indent all additional lines use hanging indentation. Include all sources that were mentioned. The way each reference is organized depends on the type of the source. Like, when you reference a book, include the following information: Author, the year of publication, book title, location, and publisher.
For example: Dickinson, E.What gaps are there in the current body of research? Digital object identifiers DOIs are now included for electronic sources see pp. Type your essay on a standard-sized paper 8. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
Read through it.
In research papers, in-text citations are most commonly used in the Introduction and Results sections. The style includes specific rules for organizing papers in social and political sciences, medicine, business, economics, citations within the work, and references.
See the APA manual. Flush right, on same line: page number. What are the limitations of the study?
See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. If you have referred to the author of the work in the sentence or earlier in the paragraph, you only need to include the year of publication in the citation. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. A well-written APA format essay template can help. APA guidelines encourage this inclusion but do not require it.
Psychological Assessment, 21, When you list a control variable e. Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. Contact Information. Why not?